Nanna Timeline

Nanna Timeline


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  • c. 3500 BCE

    Nanna first mentioned by name in Sumerian writings.

  • 2285 BCE - 2250 BCE

    Life of Enheduanna who elevates Nanna through her poems and hymns.

  • 2261 BCE - 2224 BCE

    Life of Naram-Sin of Akkad who honors Nanna by taking his name.

  • 2047 BCE - 1750 BCE

    Nanna is especially popular during the Ur III Period, seen as judge of the dead.

  • c. 912 BCE - 612 BCE

    Nanna worshipped throughout the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

  • c. 556 BCE - 539 BCE

    Mother of King Nabonidus of Babylon holds the position of High Priestess of Nanna at Harran while his daughter does the same at Ur, thus consolidating the king's power.

  • c. 250 CE

    Nanna continues to be worshiped in Syria.


Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire ( / ə ˈ k eɪ d i ən / ) [4] was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer. It was centered in the city of Akkad / ˈ æ k æ d / [5] and its surrounding region. The empire united Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula. [6]

During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. [7] Akkadian, an East Semitic language, [8] gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language sometime between the end of the 3rd and the early 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate). [9]

The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. [10] Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, and there are earlier Sumerian claimants. [11] [12]

After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south.


Contents

Nannie H. Burroughs born on May 2, 1879, in Orange, Virginia. She is considered to be the eldest of the daughters of John and Jennie Burroughs. Around the time she was five years old, Nannie's youngest sisters died ' and her father, who was a farmer and Baptist preacher, died a few years later. John and Jennie Burroughs were both former slaves. [4]

Nannie's parents had skills and capacities that enabled them to start toward prosperity by the time the war ended and freed them. [5] She had a grandfather known as Lija the carpenter, during the slave era, who was capable of buying his way out to freedom.

By 1883, Burroughs and her mother relocated to D.C. and stayed with Cordelia Mercer, Nannie Burroughs' aunt and older sister of Jennie Burroughs. [6] In D.C., there were better opportunities for employment and education. Burroughs attended M Street High School. It was here she organized the Harriet Beecher Stowe Literary Society, and studied business and domestic science. There she met her role models Anna J. Cooper and Mary Church Terrell, who were active in the suffrage movement and civil rights.

Upon graduating from M Street High School with honors in 1896, Burroughs sought work as a domestic-science teacher in the District of Columbia Public Schools, but was unable to find a position. [7] Though it is not documented that she was explicitly told, Burroughs was refused the position with the implication that her skin was too dark — they preferred lighter-complexioned black teachers. [8] Her skin color and social status had thwarted her for the appointment she was chosen for. Burroughs said that "the die was cast [to] beat and ignore both until death." This zeal opened a door to the profession for low-income and social status black women. This is what led Burroughs to establish a training school for women and girls. [9]

From 1898 to 1909, Burroughs was employed in Louisville, Kentucky, as an editorial secretary and bookkeeper of the Foreign Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention. In her time in Louisville, the Women's Industrial Club had formed. Here they held domestic science and management courses. One of the founders of the Women's Convention was Nannie Burroughs, providing additional help to the National Baptist Convention and serving from 1900 to 1947: nearly half a century. She was president for 13 years in the Women's Convention. [2]

This convention had the largest form [attendance?] of African Americans ever seen, and help from this convention was highly important for black religious groups, thanks to the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) which formed in 1896, the largest of three and including more than 100 local women's clubs. Because of her contribution to the NACW, the National Association of Wage Earners was founded to draw the public's attention to the dilemma of African-American women. [2]

Burroughs was president, with other well-known club women such as vice president Mary McLeod Bethune and treasurer Maggie Lena Walker. These women placed more emphasis on public interest educational forums than trade-union activities. Burroughs' other memberships included Ladies' Union Band, Saint Lukes, Saturday Evening, and Daughters of the Round Table Clubs. [10] Burroughs' also actively participated in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). [2]

By 1928 Burroughs was working in the system. She was appointed to committee chairwoman by the administration of Herbert Hoover, which was associated with Negro housing, for the White House Conference of 1931 Home Building and Ownership, straight from the stock market crash of 1929 just as the Great Depression began. [11] Burroughs spoke at the Virginia Women's Missionary Union at Richmond with the address "How White and Colored Women Can Cooperate in Building a Christian Civilization." in 1933 [12]

Burroughs was also a published playwright. In the 1920s, she wrote The Slabtown District Convention and Where is My Wandering Boy Tonight?, both one-act plays for amateur church theatrical groups. [13] The popularity of the comedic, satiric Slabtown necessitated multiple printings through the succeeding century, [13] [14] although sometimes the wording is updated as needed by successive productions. [15]

Burroughs opened the National Training School in 1908. In the first few years of being open, the school provided evening classes for women who had no other means for education. The classes were taught by Burroughs herself. There were 31 students who regularly attended her classes, however, after time, and due to the high level of teaching, the school began attracting more students. [16] The school was founded in a small farmhouse that eventually attracted women from all over the nation. [4]

During the first 40 years of the 20th century, young African-American women were being prepared by the National Training School to "uplift the race" and obtain a livelihood. The emphasis of the school was "the three B's: the Bible, the bath, and the broom". [16] Burroughs created her own history course that was dedicated to informing women about society influencing Negroes in history. Since this was not a topic that was discussed in regular historical curriculum, Burroughs found it necessary to teach African American women to be proud of their race. [16]

With the incorporation of industrial education into training in morality, religion, and cleanliness, Nannie Helen Burroughs and her staff needed to resolve a conflict central to many African-American women. "Wage laborer" was their main role of the service occupations of the ghetto, as well as their biggest role model as guardians for "the race" of the community. The dominant culture of African Americans' immoral image had to be challenged by the National Training School, training African-American women from a young age to become efficient wage workers as well as community activists, reinforcing the ideal of respectability, as extremely important to "racial uplift."

Racial pride, respectability, and work ethic were all key factors in training being offered by the National Training School and racial uplift ideology. These qualities were seen as extremely important for African-American women's success as fund-raisers, wage workers, and "race women". All these gathered from the school would bring African-American women into the labor of public sphere including politics, uplifting racial aid, and the domestic sphere expanded. By understanding the uplift ideology of its grassroots nature, Burroughs had used it to promote her school. [17] Many disagreed with Burroughs teaching women skills that did not directly apply to domestic housework. None the less, students continued coming and the school carried on. [4]

On May 20, 1961, she was found dead in Washington D.C. of natural causes. She had died alone she never married because she had dedicated her life to the National Trade and Professional School. [19] She was buried at the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church where she was a member.

Three years after her death the institution was renamed the Nannie Burroughs School and has remained that way since. Even though more than 50 years has passed since her death, her history and legacy continue to motivate modern African-American women. The Manuscript Division in The Library of Congress holds 110,000 items in her papers. [20]


Nanna Timeline - History


11th to 8th century BC. Southern Italy and Sicily settled by Greek colonists
753 BC. Rome is founded
706BC. City of Taranto (known as Taras in Greek) founded by colonists from Sparta (7)
540 BC. Pythagoras sets up school of Philosophy in Croton
510 BC. Croton's army defeats the city of Sybaris ( sybarites pleasure seekers)
6th to 7th century BC. Heyday of Magna Grecia. Temple of Paestum and Siracusa

473BC. Taranto conquered by the Iapygians (7)
326 BC. Naples falls to the Romans
282 BC. Pyrrhus (pyrrhic victory won the battle, lost the war) invades southern Italy

279BC. Pyrhuss defeats Romans at Asculum in northern Apulia
275 BC. Pyrrhus defeated at Benevento by Romans

272BC. Romans drive Greeks from Taranto and begin rule of all of Apulia (7)
264 BC..First Punic (Carthaginian) War with Rome

218BC. Hannibal crosses Alps and approaches Rome (7)
216 BC. Canae, in Apulia, is scene of defeat of Rome by Hannibal
212 BC. Archimedes of Siracusa dies

203BC. Hannibal returns to Carthage (7)
170 BC. Appian Way from Brindisi to Rome completed
146BC. Carthage defeated by Rome
73 BC. At Cumae, Spartacus begins slave revolt
65 BC. Horace the poet is born in Venosa
79 AD. Vesuvius erupts and buries Pompei and Herculaneum
324 AD. Christianity becomes the official religion of southern Italy
393 AD. Rome divided between West and the East (Constantinople)
412 AD. Alaric, king of the Goths dies at Cosenza after sacking Rome in 410 AD

490AD. Archangel Michael appears to the Bishop of Siponto in a cave in the Gargano area (7)
535AD to 553AD. Byzantines retain control of Apulia in Gothic-Byzantine War (7)
568 AD. The South is divided between Lombard and Byzantine rulers

590AD. Langobards attack Byzantines in Apulian territory (7)
662AD-667AD. Longobards conquer all of Apulia except lower part of Salento, which remains in Byzantine hands (7)
840AD Saracens capture Bari (7)
842AD. Saracens capture Taranto (7)
871AD. Ludwig II of Germany retakes Bari from Saracens (7)
875AD. Basil I of the Byzantine retakes Apulia from Saracens and Lonobards (7)
916. Muslims defeated at Garigliano by Christian forces
965. Sicily is dominated by Saracens

1015AD. Norman pilgrims ally with Pope Benedict VIII against Byzantines (7)
1042. William, son of Tancred becomes the Duke of Apulia

1047 Emporer Henry III gives Apulia to the Normans as a fief (7)
1053. Norman territories united under Robert Guiscard
1071. Roger, son of William becomes Count of Sicily at Palermo

1071AD. Byzantines are removed from their last outposts at Brindisi and Bari (7)
1085. Robert Guiscard dies at Corfu. His heart is taken to the cathedral at Otranto, his body to Venosa. (7)

1095AD. Boemond, son of Robert Guiscard joins first Crusade. Founds first Crusader state at Antioch. (7)
1111AD. Boemond dies and is buried at Canosa di Puglia. Inscription on tomb simply says Boamundus. (7)
1127AD. Apulia becomes part of Sicilian kingdom of RogerII. (7) 1130. Roger II capture Amalfi and Naples and becomes King of Sicily
1156AD. William II razes Bari because of numerous insurrections originating there
1194. Henry VI of Germany displaces Norman rule
1220. Frederick II crowned in Rome
1240. Completion of Castle Del Monte
1250. Frederick II dies
1266. Charles of Anjou (France) becomes king Of Sicily and Naples
1268. Conradin is executed by Charles to prevent his rightful ascendency
1282. The ' Sicilian Vespers' rids Sicily of Charles I of France
1282. House of Aragon (Spain) takes over
1349. Devastation of the Black Plague
1349. The 'Rose of Auricarro' is discovered near Palo del Colle.
1442. Alfonso of Aragon establishes Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1468. Turks defeat Albanians who settle in Southern Italy

1480AD. Turks capture Otranto (7)
1503. Southern Italy becomes part of Spanish Empire and feudalism begins
1595. parish records become official duty of the priests
1647. Masaniello begins revolt against Spanish Crown
1669. Eruption Of Mount Etna with much destruction

1707AD. Bourbon rule established in Naples (7)
1713. Austrians rule southern Italy with Treaty of Utrecht
1737. Construction begins on Teatro San Carlo
1748. Bourbon King Charles III defeats Austrians at Vietri
1748. Herculaneum and Pompei excavations begin
1759..Fedinand II becomes King
1790..Foundation of Museo Nazionale in Naples
1799. Birth and fall of the Parthenopean republic in Naples.
1806. Feudalism officially abolished in southern Italy, but not in Sicily
1806. Napoleon reoccupies the Kingdom of Naples. Murat set up as ruler
1816. new administration system for the Kingdom of Naples based on the French model
1820. Carbonari lead unsuccessful revolt against the Bourbon King Ferdinand
1860. Abolishment of tariffs protecting industry in south
1860. Garibaldi enters Naples
1860. Plebescite in south approves annexation of Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Italy
1861. Piedmont constitution imposed on the south
1861 -1866. 116,000 northern Italian troops put down insurgent brigandage in the south
1865. Tavoliere or 'Murge' in Apulia is open to cultivation and land sale
1870. Rome falls and Italian unification becomes complete
1871. General draft begun for all 18 year olds
1876. The Left wins the general Italian election and Agostino DePretis becomes prime minister.
1881 to 1901. Number of southern Italian workers declines by one third
1882 . Right to vote given to store owners and craftsmen ,only 8 percent of the population
1884 to1887. Cholera epidemics take the lives of over 55,000 people in the south
1887. Francesco Crispi becomes Prime Minister
1887. Trade relations with France are severed
1888. Beginning of trade war with France
1888. Legislation recognizes the right to emigrate
1890. The plant disease Phylloxera destroys most of the grapevines in the south.
1890. Drop in agricultural prices causes a trade war especially with French wine industry
1894. Major land reforms proposed by Prime Minister Crispi to try to quell Sicilian unrest
1894. Large earthquake
1898. bread riots throughout Italy lead to suppression of civil rights
1903. Giovanni Giolitti becomes Prime Minister
1904. The pope rescinds Pius' edict prohibiting Catholic participation in political activity
1908. Earthquake and tidal wave causes massive destruction in Messina and Calabria
1915. Italy enters war after signing the Treaty of London
1951 to 1970. 4.5million emigrate from the south, half to north Italy and half abroad.

1. ITALIAN GENEALOGICAL RECORDS by Trafford R. Cole

2. LA STORIA: FIVE CENTURIES OF THE ITALIAN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE by Mangione and Morreale


3. THE NORMAN KINGDOM OF SICILY by Donald Matthew


4. VIOLENCE AND GREAT ESTATES IN THE SOUTH OF ITALY:APULIA 1900-1920 by Frank Snowden


5. THE NEW HISTORY OF THE ITALIAN SOUTH edited by Robert Lumley and Jonathan Morris


6. INSIGHT GUIDE: SOUTHERN ITALY editor Roger Williams


Buildings

© Copyright 2021 Ian King (MSS Studios), Dolgellau.

The book, "Nannau – A Rich Tapestry of Welsh History" by Philip Nanney Williams is available to buy here.

I would like to thank the following people for their help and contributions to this website (and my previous one at nannau.com): Dennis Yancey (and his Nanney Family Archives), David Brown, Philip Nanney Williams, Christopher Quaile, Miles Wynn Cato (welshart.co.uk), Welsh Antiques (welshantiques.com), The National Library of Wales, The National Museum of Wales and The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales.

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Timeline of Archanea, Valentia and Jugdral

The continents Archanea, Valentia and Jugdral occupy a single Fire Emblem series story universe. Though their stories are isolated from each other by thousands of years, they nonetheless share a clear link, manifest in certain recurring characters and groups like the Divine Dragon Naga and the other dragon/Manakete tribes.

There are three separate calendar systems in operation in the world: the Grann Calendar of Jugdral, where the the calendar's Year 0 is the year of the founding of the ancient Grann Kingdom a year in this system is typically called a Grann Year. The other system, used in Archanea, is the Archanea calendar, where Year 0 is the year of the founding of the Holy Kingdom of Archanea. Though never officially stated, the points at which the three calendars synchronise can be easily deduced with simple mathematics to use the start of Genealogy of the Holy War as a point of synchronisation, which is set in Grann Year 757, it has been calculated to approximately be at -423 on the Archanea calendar (that is, 423 years before the foundation of Archanea) Ώ] . The calendar in use as of the time of Awakening is currently unknown, as is the exact time elapsed since Mystery of the Emblem however, Tiki at one point says she is at least 3,000 years old by that point, giving a rough idea of the elapsed time period. The third system is the Valentian calendar, whose Year 1 starts when a Zofian astronomer suggests the idea of a calendar system to Mila. ΐ]

It should be noted that the synchronisation between the Archanea and Grann calendars is conjecture. Though grounded in information provided in guidebooks and games, it works on the assumption that the listed time period for the Earth Dragon war did indeed take place within the single year listed in the Mystery of the Emblem timeline, as opposed to the possibility of spanning multiple years. As such, it is very much subject to being incorrect and change should Intelligent Systems release a more detailed Archanea timeline. The synchronization between the Valentian and Archanean calendars, however, is much easier to deduce, due to the games' events occurring at around the same time period.


Though, another statement Tiki makes in Awakening, with some assumptions, may mark the calendar synchronization as roughly correct. Α] If the ancestor Tiki speaks about to Robin is Sigurd or Seliph, this means Sigurd and his son came 1000 years before Marth, which roughly lines up with this current incarnation of the timeline. As noted this, however, relies on an assumption, and Tiki may not be talking about said characters (she is never shown meeting either character in Genealogy or Thracia) many people assume she is talking about Anri, however, Anri lived a mere 68 years before Marth, being his great granduncle.

It is possible some older guidebooks may no longer be accurate however, this page is based on them in the absence of direct disconfirmation.

History of Jugdral
Events of Genealogy of the Holy War
Events of Thracia 776
History of Archanea
Events of Shadow Dragon & the Blade of Light / Shadow Dragon
Events of Mystery of the Emblem / New Mystery of the Emblem
Events of Fire Emblem: Archanea Saga
History of Valentia
Events of Gaiden / Echoes: Shadows of Valentia
History of the post-Marth world
Events of Before Awakening, Awakening , and Hidden Truths 1

Nanna Jansson Height, Weight & Measurements

At 37 years old, Nanna Jansson height is 1.72 m .

Physical Status
Height 1.72 m
Weight Not Available
Body Measurements Not Available
Eye Color Not Available
Hair Color Not Available

Dating & Relationship status

She is currently single. She is not dating anyone. We don't have much information about She's past relationship and any previous engaged. According to our Database, She has no children.

Family
Parents Not Available
Husband Not Available
Sibling Not Available
Children Not Available


Contents

Early years Edit

Cernan was born on March 14, 1934, in Chicago, Illinois [1] he was the son of Rose (née Cihlar 1898–1991) and Andrew George Cernan (1904–1967). His father was of Slovak descent and his mother was of Czech ancestry. [2] [3] Cernan grew up in the Illinois towns of Bellwood and Maywood. He was a Boy Scout and earned the rank of Second Class. [4] After attending McKinley Elementary School in Bellwood, and graduating from Proviso East High School in Maywood in 1952, he studied at Purdue University where he became a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, serving as a treasurer. At Purdue, Cernan was also president of the Quarterdeck Society and the Scabbard and Blade, and a member of the Phi Eta Sigma honor society and Tau Beta Pi engineering honor society. He was on the military ball committee and was a member of the Skull and Crescent leadership honor society. [5] After his sophomore year, he accepted a partial Navy ROTC scholarship that required him to serve aboard USS Roanoke between his junior and senior years. In 1956, Cernan received a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering his final GPA was 5.1 out of 6.0. [6]

Navy service Edit

Cernan was commissioned a U.S. Navy Ensign through the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps at Purdue, and was initially stationed on the USS Saipan. Cernan changed to active duty and attended flying training at Whiting Field, Barron Field, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, and Naval Air Station Memphis. [7] : 29–31 Following flight training on the T-28 Trojan, T-33 Shooting Star, and F9F Panther, Cernan became a Naval Aviator, flying FJ-4 Fury and A-4 Skyhawk jets in Attack Squadrons 126 and 113. [7] : 31–33,38–39 Upon completion of his assignment in Miramar, California, he finished his education in 1963 at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School with a Master of Science degree in aeronautical engineering. [8]

During his naval career, Cernan logged more than 5,000 hours of flying time, including 4,800 hours in jet aircraft. Cernan also made at least 200 successful landings on aircraft carriers. [8]

NASA career Edit

In October 1963, NASA selected Cernan as one of the third group of astronauts to participate in the Gemini and Apollo space programs. [8]

Gemini program Edit

Cernan was originally selected with Thomas Stafford as backup pilot for Gemini 9. When the prime crew of Elliot See and Charles Bassett was killed in the crash of NASA T-38A "901" (USAF serial 63–8181) at Lambert Field on February 28, 1966, the backup crew became the prime crew—the first time in NASA history this happened. [9] Gemini 9A encountered a number of problems the original target vehicle exploded during launch and the planned docking with a substitute target vehicle was made impossible by the failure of a protective shroud to separate after launch. [9] The crew, however, performed a rendezvous that simulated procedures that would be used in the Apollo 10 mission the first optical rendezvous and a lunar-orbit-abort rendezvous. Cernan performed the second American EVA, the third-ever spacewalk, but overexertion caused by a lack of limb restraints prevented testing of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit and forced the early termination of the spacewalk. [9] Cernan was also a backup pilot for the Gemini 12 mission. [10]

Apollo program Edit

Apollo 10 Edit

Cernan was selected for the lunar module pilot position on the backup crew for Apollo 7—although that flight carried no lunar module. [11] Standard crew rotation put him in place as the Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 10—the final dress rehearsal mission for the first Apollo lunar landing—on May 18–26, 1969.

During the Apollo 10 mission, Cernan and his commander, Tom Stafford, piloted the Lunar Module Snoopy in lunar orbit to within 8.5 nautical miles (15.7 km) of the lunar surface, and successfully executing every phase of a lunar landing up to final powered descent. This provided NASA planners with critical knowledge of technical systems and lunar gravitational conditions to enable Apollo 11 to land on the Moon two months later. Apollo 10 holds the record for the highest speed attained by any crewed vehicle at 39,897 km/h (24,791 mph) during its return from the Moon on May 26, 1969. [10]

Apollo 17 Edit

Cernan turned down the opportunity to walk on the Moon as Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 16, preferring to risk missing a flight for the opportunity to command his own mission. [12] Cernan moved back into the Apollo rotation as commander of the backup crew of Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Joe Engle for Apollo 14, putting him in position through normal crew rotation to command his own crew on Apollo 17. Escalating budget cutbacks for NASA, however, brought the number of future lunar missions into question. After the cancellation of Apollo 15 in its original H class profile and Apollo 19 in September 1970, pressure from the scientific community to shift Harrison Schmitt, the sole professional geologist in the active Apollo roster of astronauts, to the crew of Apollo 17, the final scheduled Apollo mission, mounted. In August 1971, NASA named Schmitt as the lunar module pilot for Apollo 17, which meant the original LM pilot Joe Engle never had the opportunity to walk on the Moon. Cernan fought to keep his crew together given the choice of flying with Schmitt as LMP or seeing his entire crew removed from Apollo 17, Cernan chose to fly with Schmitt. Cernan eventually came to have a positive evaluation of Schmitt's abilities he concluded that Schmitt was an outstanding LM pilot while Engle—notwithstanding his outstanding record as an aircraft test pilot—was merely an adequate one. [13]

Cernan's role as commander of Apollo 17 closed out the Apollo program's lunar exploration mission with a number of record-setting achievements. During the three days of Apollo 17's surface activity (Dec. 11–14, 1972), Cernan and Schmitt performed three EVAs for a total of about 22 hours of exploration of the Taurus–Littrow valley. Their first EVA alone was more than three times the length astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin spent outside the LM on Apollo 11. During this time Cernan and Schmitt covered more than 35 km (22 mi) using the Lunar Roving Vehicle and spent a great deal of time collecting geologic samples (including a record 34 kilograms (75 lb) of samples, the most of any Apollo mission) that would shed light on the Moon's early history. Cernan piloted the rover on its final sortie, recording a maximum speed of 11.2 mph (18.0 km/h), giving him the unofficial lunar land speed record. [14]

As Cernan prepared to climb the ladder for the final time, he spoke these words, currently the last spoken by a human being standing on the lunar surface:

Bob, this is Gene, and I'm on the surface and, as I take man's last step from the surface, back home for some time to come – but we believe not too long into the future – I'd like to just (say) what I believe history will record: that America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus–Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17.

Cernan's status as the last person to walk on the Moon means Purdue University is the alma mater of both the first person to walk on the Moon—Neil Armstrong—and the most recent. Cernan is one of only three astronauts to travel to the Moon on two occasions the others being Jim Lovell and John Young. He is also one of only twelve people to have walked on the Moon.

Post-NASA activities Edit

In 1976, Cernan retired from the Navy with the rank of captain and went from NASA into private business, becoming Executive Vice President of Coral Petroleum Inc. before starting his own company, The Cernan Corporation, in 1981. [8] In 1981 and 1982 Cernan joined Frank Reynolds and Jules Bergman on the extensive ABC coverage of the first 3 space shuttle launches. Many hours of these ABC broadcasts have been uploaded to YouTube in recent years. From 1987 he was a contributor to ABC News and the weekly segment of its Good Morning America program titled "Breakthrough", which covered health, science, and medicine. [16]

In 1999, with co-author Donald A. Davis, he published his memoir The Last Man on the Moon, which is about his naval and NASA career. He is featured in the space exploration documentary In the Shadow of the Moon in which he said, "truth needs no defense" and "nobody can take those footsteps I made on the surface of the Moon away from me". [17] Cernan also contributed to the book of the same name.

Cernan and Neil Armstrong testified before U.S. Congress in 2010 in opposition to the cancellation of the Constellation program, which had been initiated during the George W. Bush administration as part of the Vision for Space Exploration with the aim of returning humans to the Moon and eventually Mars, but was deemed underfunded and unsustainable by the Augustine Commission in 2009. [18]

Cernan paired his criticism of the cancellation of Constellation with expressions of skepticism about Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) and Commercial Crew Development (CCDev), NASA's planned replacements for that program's role in supplying cargo and crew to the International Space Station. Such companies, Cernan warned, "do not yet know what they don't know." Cernan's view of commercial space companies—in particular SpaceX, which participates in both programs—underwent a positive shift after being debriefed by SpaceX venture capitalist Steve Jurvetson as part of his effort to obtain the signatures of nine Apollo astronauts on a photograph meant as a gift to SpaceX founder Elon Musk to commemorate the first successful SpaceX cargo mission to the ISS in 2012. Eventually, Cernan was won over and signed the photograph "As I told him these stories of heroic entrepreneurship, I could see his mind turning." Jurvetson wrote "He found a reconciliation: 'I never read any of this in the news. Why doesn't the press report on this?'" [19]

In 2014, Cernan appeared in the documentary The Last Man on the Moon, made by British filmmaker Mark Craig and based on Cernan's 1999 memoir of the same title. [20] The film received the Texas Independent Film Award from Houston Film Critics Society and the Movies for Grownups Award from AARP The Magazine. [21] [22]

Personal life Edit

Cernan was married twice and had one daughter. His first wife was Barbara Jean Atchley, a flight attendant for Continental Airlines, whom he married in 1961. They had one daughter, Tracy (born in 1963). The couple separated in 1980 and divorced in 1981. They remained friends. [23] His second marriage was to Janis Nanna Cernan, which lasted for nearly 30 years from 1987 until his death. Cernan gained two step-daughters, Kelly and Danielle. [24]

Death Edit

Cernan died in a hospital in Houston on January 16, 2017, at the age of 82. [25] His funeral was held at St. Martin's Episcopal Church in Houston. [26] He was buried with full military honors at Texas State Cemetery, the first astronaut to be buried there, in a private service on January 25, 2017. [27] [28]

Cernan was a member of several organizations: Fellow, American Astronautical Society member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots member, Tau Beta Pi (National Engineering Society), Sigma Xi (National Science Research Society), Phi Gamma Delta (National Social Fraternity), and The Explorers Club. [8]

    [8] , Gold star device in lieu of second award [8][8][8][8] , 2007 [29][30][31]
  • Slovakia : Grand Officer (or 2nd Class) of the Order of the White Double Cross (September 25, 1994). [32]
  • Great American Award, The All-American Boys Chorus, 2014 [33]
  • Cernan was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum in 2007. [34]
  • Orbital ATK announced the naming of its Cygnus CRS OA-8E Cargo Delivery Spacecraft the S.S. Gene Cernan in honor of Cernan in October, 2017. [35] The S.S. Gene Cernan successfully launched to the International Space Station on November 12, 2017. [36]

Cernan, along with nine of his Gemini astronaut colleagues, was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1982. [10] [37]

On July 2, 1974, Cernan was a roaster of Don Rickles on The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast. At the end of the roast, Rickles—who attended the Apollo 17 launch—paid tribute to Cernan as a "delightful, wonderful, great hero". [38]

In the 1998 Primetime Emmy Award-winning HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, Cernan was portrayed by Daniel Hugh Kelly. [39]

Cernan was featured in the Discovery Channel's 2008 documentary miniseries When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions, talking about his involvement and missions as an astronaut. [40]

A popular belief is that Cernan wrote his daughter's initials on a rock on the Moon, Tracy's Rock. The story, and Cernan's relationship with his daughter, was later adapted into "Tracy's Song" by pop-rock band No More Kings. The story is inaccurate, as Cernan wrote her initials in the dust, not on a rock. He states in the 2014 documentary The Last Man on the Moon that he wrote them in the lunar dust as he left the rover to return to the LEM and Earth. [41] The true story of leaving the initials on the lunar surface was prominently mentioned in "The Last Walt", a 2012 episode of Modern Family. [42]

A recording of Cernan's voice during the Apollo 17 mission was sampled by Daft Punk for "Contact", the last track on their 2013 album Random Access Memories. [43] Cernan's last words from the lunar surface, along with Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt's recollections, were used by the band Public Service Broadcasting for the song "Tomorrow", the final track of their 2015 album The Race for Space. [44]

The Apple TV+ show For All Mankind dramatizes the Moon landings. The fictional main character draws comparisons to and shares similarity with the commander of the Apollo 17 mission, Gene Cernan. [45]


Contents

Weill was born on March 2, 1900, [4] the third of four children to Albert Weill (1867–1950) and Emma Weill (née Ackermann 1872–1955). He grew up in a religious Jewish family in the "Sandvorstadt", the Jewish quarter in Dessau in Saxony, where his father was a cantor. [5] At the age of twelve, Weill started taking piano lessons and made his first attempts at writing music his earliest preserved composition was written in 1913 and is titled Mi Addir: Jewish Wedding Song. [6]

In 1915, Weill started taking private lessons with Albert Bing, Kapellmeister at the "Herzogliches Hoftheater zu Dessau", who taught him piano, composition, music theory, and conducting. Weill performed publicly on piano for the first time in 1915, both as an accompanist and soloist. The following years he composed numerous Lieder to the lyrics of poets such as Joseph von Eichendorff, Arno Holz, and Anna Ritter, as well as a cycle of five songs titled Ofrahs Lieder to a German translation of a text by Yehuda Halevi. [7]

Weill graduated with an Abitur from the Oberrealschule of Dessau in 1918, and enrolled at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik at the age of 18, where he studied composition with Engelbert Humperdinck, [5] conducting with Rudolf Krasselt, and counterpoint with Friedrich E. Koch, and also attended philosophy lectures by Max Dessoir and Ernst Cassirer. The same year, he wrote his first string quartet (in B minor). [8]

Weill's family experienced financial hardship in the aftermath of World War I, and in July 1919, Weill abandoned his studies and returned to Dessau, where he was employed as a répétiteur at the Friedrich-Theater under the direction of the new Kapellmeister, Hans Knappertsbusch. During this time, he composed an orchestral suite in E-flat major, a symphonic poem on Rainer Maria Rilke's The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke, and Schilflieder ("Reed Songs"), a cycle of five songs to poems by Nikolaus Lenau. In December 1919, through the help of Humperdinck, Weill was appointed as Kapellmeister at the newly founded Stadttheater in Lüdenscheid, where he directed opera, operetta, and singspiel for five months. He subsequently composed a cello sonata and Ninon de Lenclos, a now lost one-act operatic adaptation of a 1905 play by Ernst Hardt. From May to September 1920, Weill spent a few months in Leipzig, where his father had become the director of a Jewish orphanage. Before he returned to Berlin, in September 1920, he composed Sulamith, a choral fantasy for soprano, female choir, and orchestra.

Back in Berlin, Weill had an interview with Ferruccio Busoni in December 1920. After examining some of Weill's compositions, Busoni accepted him as one of five master students in composition at the Preussische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. [9]

From January 1921 to December 1923, Weill studied music composition with him and also counterpoint with Philipp Jarnach in Berlin. During his first year he composed his first symphony, Sinfonie in einem Satz, as well as the lieder Die Bekehrte (Goethe) and two Rilkelieder for voice and piano. [10] Busoni, then approaching the end of his life, was a major influence on Weill. Where Weill's early compositions reflect the post-Wagnerian Romanticism and Expressionism common in German classical music of that era, Busoni was a Neoclassicist. Busoni's influence can be seen especially in Weill's vocal and stage works, which moved steadily away from having the music reflect the characters' emotions to have it function as (often ironic) commentary. This was Weill's own path to some of the same notions of Epic theater and the Verfremdungseffekt (distancing effect) advocated by his future collaborator Brecht. [11]

To support his family in Leipzig, Weill also worked as a pianist in a Bierkeller tavern. In 1922, Weill joined the November Group's music faction. That year he composed a psalm, a divertimento for orchestra, and Sinfonia Sacra: Fantasia, Passacaglia, and Hymnus for Orchestra. On November 18, 1922, his children's pantomime Die Zaubernacht (The Magic Night) premiered at the Theater am Kurfürstendamm it was the first public performance of any of Weill's works in the field of musical theatre. [10]

Out of financial need, Weill taught music theory and composition to private students from 1923 to 1925. Among his students were Claudio Arrau, Maurice Abravanel, Heinz Jolles (later known as Henry Jolles), [12] and Nikos Skalkottas. Arrau, Abravanel, and Jolles remained members of Weill's circle of friends thereafter, [13] and Jolles's sole surviving composition predating the rise of the Nazi regime in 1933 is a fragment of a work for four pianos he and Weill wrote jointly. [12]

Weill's compositions during his last year of studies included Quodlibet, an orchestral suite version of Die Zaubernacht Frauentanz, seven medieval poems for soprano, flute, viola, clarinet, French horn, and bassoon and Recordare for choir and children's choir to words from the Book of Lamentations. Further premieres that year included a performance of his Divertimento for Orchestra by the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Heinz Unger on April 10, 1923, and the Hindemith-Amar Quartet's rendering of Weill's String Quartet, Op. 8, on June 24, 1923. In December 1923, Weill finished his studies with Busoni. [14]

In 1922 he joined the Novembergruppe, a group of leftist Berlin artists that included Hanns Eisler and Stefan Wolpe. [15] In February 1924 the conductor Fritz Busch introduced him to the dramatist Georg Kaiser, with whom Weill would have a long-lasting creative partnership resulting in several one-act operas. At Kaiser's house in Grünheide, Weill first met the singer and actress Lotte Lenya in the summer of 1924. [16] The couple were married twice: in 1926 and again in 1937 (after their divorce in 1933). She took great care to support Weill's work, and after his death she took it upon herself to increase awareness of his music, forming the Kurt Weill Foundation. From November 1924 to May 1929, Weill wrote hundreds of reviews for the influential and comprehensive radio program guide Der deutsche Rundfunk Hans Siebert von Heister had already worked with Weill in the November Group, and offered Weill the job shortly after becoming editor-in-chief. [17]

Although he had some success with his first mature non-stage works (such as the String Quartet, Op. 8, or the Concerto for Violin and Wind Orchestra, Op. 12), which were influenced by Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky, Weill tended more and more towards vocal music and musical theatre. His musical theatre work and his songs were extremely popular in Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Weill's music was admired by composers such as Alban Berg, Alexander von Zemlinsky, Darius Milhaud and Stravinsky, but it was also criticized by others: Schoenberg, who later revised his opinion, and Anton Webern.

His best-known work is The Threepenny Opera (1928), a reworking of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, written in collaboration with Bertolt Brecht. Engel directed the original production of The Threepenny Opera in 1928. It contains Weill's most famous song, "Mack the Knife" ("Die Moritat von Mackie Messer"). [18] Textually Threepenny Opera—like the Beggar's Opera before it—is satire and social commentary [19] but for Weill, coming from a musical perspective, it was something else as well: "It gives us the opportunity to make opera the subject matter for an evening in the theater", [20] part of what Weill saw as a lifelong process to "reform" opera for the modern stage. [21]

The stage success was filmed by G. W. Pabst in two language versions: Die 3-Groschen-Oper and L'opéra de quat' sous. Weill and Brecht tried to stop the film adaptation through a well publicized lawsuit—which Weill won and Brecht lost. Weill's working association with Brecht, although successful, came to an end over politics in 1930. Though Weill associated with socialism, [18] after Brecht tried to push the play even further into a left wing direction, Weill commented, according to his wife Lotte Lenya, that he was unable to "set the Communist Manifesto to music." [22]

Weill fled Nazi Germany in March 1933. [23] A prominent and popular Jewish composer, Weill was officially denounced for his political views and sympathies, [24] and became a target of the Nazi authorities, who criticized and interfered with performances of his later stage works, such as Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny, 1930), Die Bürgschaft (1932), and Der Silbersee (1933). With no option but to leave Germany, he went first to Paris, where he worked once more with Brecht (after a project with Jean Cocteau failed) on the ballet The Seven Deadly Sins.

On April 13, 1933, his musical The Threepenny Opera was given its premiere on Broadway, but closed after 13 performances to mixed reviews. [4] In 1934 he completed his Symphony No. 2, his last purely orchestral work, conducted in Amsterdam and New York by Bruno Walter, and also the music for Jacques Deval's play Marie Galante [fr] . [23] A production of his operetta Der Kuhhandel (A Kingdom for a Cow) took him to London in 1935, and later that year he went to the United States in connection with The Eternal Road, [5] a "Biblical Drama" by Franz Werfel that had been commissioned by members of New York's Jewish community and was premiered in 1937 at the Manhattan Opera House, running for 153 performances.

He and Lotte moved to New York City on September 10, 1935, living first at the St. Moritz Hotel before moving to an apartment at 231 East 62nd Street, between Third and Second Avenues. [4] They rented an old house with Paul Green during the summer of 1936 near Pine Brook Country Club in Nichols, Connecticut, the summer home of the Group Theatre, while finishing Johnny Johnson. Some of the other artists who summered there in 1936 were Elia Kazan, Harry Morgan, John Garfield, Lee J. Cobb, Will Geer, Clifford Odets, Howard Da Silva and Irwin Shaw. [25] [26] [27]

Rather than continue to write in the same style that had characterized his European compositions, Weill made a study of American popular and stage music. His American output contains individual songs and entire shows that not only became highly respected and admired, but have been seen as seminal works in the development of the American musical. In 1939 he wrote the music for Railroads on Parade, a musical spectacular put on at the 1939 World's Fair in New York to celebrate the American railroad industry (book by Edward Hungerford). Unique among Broadway composers of the time, Weill insisted on writing his own orchestrations (with some very few exceptions, such as the dance music in Street Scene). [28] He worked with writers such as Maxwell Anderson and Ira Gershwin, and wrote a film score for Fritz Lang (You and Me, 1938). Weill himself strove to find a new way of creating an American opera that would be both commercially and artistically successful. The most interesting attempt in this direction is Street Scene, based on a play by Elmer Rice, with lyrics by Langston Hughes. For his work on Street Scene Weill was awarded the inaugural Tony Award for Best Original Score. [29]

In the 1940s Weill lived in downstate New York near the New Jersey border and made frequent trips both to New York City and to Hollywood for his work for theatre and film. Weill was active in political movements encouraging American entry into World War II, and after America joined the war in 1941, Weill enthusiastically collaborated in numerous artistic projects supporting the war effort both abroad and on the home front. He and Maxwell Anderson also joined the volunteer civil service by working as air raid wardens on High Tor Mountain between their homes in New City, New York and Haverstraw, New York in Rockland County. Weill became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1943. [5]

Weill had ideals of writing music that served a socially useful purpose. In the US, he wrote Down in the Valley, an opera including the song of the same name and other American folk songs. He also wrote a number of songs in support of the American war effort, including the satirical "Schickelgruber" (with lyrics by Howard Dietz), "Buddy on the Nightshift" (with Oscar Hammerstein) and – with Brecht again as in his earlier career – the "Ballad of the Nazi Soldier's Wife" ("Und was bekam des Soldaten Weib?"). Intended for broadcast to Germany, the song chronicled the progress of the Nazi war machine through the gifts sent to the proud wife at home by her man at the front: furs from Oslo, a silk dress from Paris etc., until finally, from Russia, she receives her widow's veil. [2]

Apart from "Mack the Knife" and "Pirate Jenny" from The Threepenny Opera, his most famous songs include "Alabama Song" (from Mahagonny), "Surabaya Johnny" (from Happy End), "Speak Low" (from One Touch of Venus), "Lost in the Stars" (from the musical of that name), "My Ship" (from Lady in the Dark), and "September Song" (from Knickerbocker Holiday).

Weill suffered a heart attack shortly after his 50th birthday and died on April 3, 1950, in New York City. [23] He was buried in Mount Repose Cemetery in Haverstraw, New York. The text and music on his gravestone come from the song "A Bird of Passage" from Lost in the Stars, itself adapted from a quotation from the Venerable Bede: [30]

This is the life of men on earth:
Out of darkness we come at birth
Into a lamplit room, and then –
Go forward into dark again.
(lyric: Maxwell Anderson)

An excerpt from Maxwell Anderson's eulogy for Weill read:

I wish, of course, that he had been lucky enough to have had a little more time for his work. I could wish the times in which he lived had been less troubled. But these things were as they were – and Kurt managed to make thousands of beautiful things during the short and troubled time he had . [2]


Nanny of the Maroons

Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century. She was known by both the Maroons and the British settlers as an outstanding military leader who became, in her lifetime and after, a symbol of unity and strength for her people during times of crisis.

She was particularly important to them in the fierce fight with the British, during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. Although she has been immortalised in songs and legends, certain facts about Nanny (or “Granny Nanny”, as she was affectionately known) have also been documented.

Both legends and documents refer to her as having exceptional leadership qualities. She was a small, wiry woman with piercing eyes. Her influence over the Maroons was so strong, that it seemed to be supernatural and was said to be connected to her powers of obeah. She was particularly skilled in organising the guerilla warfare carried out by the Eastern Maroons to keep away the British troops who attempted to penetrate the mountains to overpower them.

Her cleverness in planning guerilla warfare confused the British and their accounts of the fights reflect the surprise and fear which the Maroon traps caused among them.

Besides inspiring her people to ward off the troops, Nanny was also a type of chieftainess or wise woman of the village, who passed down legends and encouraged the continuation of customs, music and songs, that had come with the people from Africa, and which instilled in them confidence and pride.

Her spirit of freedom was so great that in 1739, when Quao signed the second Treaty (the first was signed bv Cudjoe for the Leeward Maroons a few months earlier) with the British, it is reported that Nanny was very angry and in disagreement with the principle of peace with the British, which she knew meant another form of subjugation.

There are many legends about Nanny among the Maroons. Some even claim that there were several women who were leaders of the Maroons during this period of history. But all the legends and documents refer to Nanny of the First Maroon War, as the most outstanding of them all, leading her people with courage and inspiring them to struggle to maintain that spirit of freedom, and life of independence, which was their rightful inheritance.

On March 31, 1982 the Right Excellent Nanny of the Maroons was conferred the Order of the National Hero as per Government Notice 23 Jamaica Gazette along with Sam Sharpe.


Watch the video: Nana - One Second


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