Gallatin, Albert - History

Gallatin, Albert - History

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) Secretary of the Treasury: Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on January 29, 1761, to an ancient patrician family. His father died when young Gallatin was two years old, and his mother followed seven years later. Young Gallatin was placed in the care of a relative, from whom he received his early education. In 1773, he was sent to boarding school, entering the University of Geneva a year later. Gallatin graduated from the university in 1779, with first rank in mathematics, natural philosophy (precursor of physics) and Latin translation. The enlightenment philosopher and social critic Voltaire was a friend of Gallatin's grandmother, and Gallatin was influenced by the intellectually liberal climate in Europe. He gave up the opportunity to serve as a lieutenant colonel in the Hessian troops. Instead, he left Switzerland secretly in 1780, with a college friend, to move to America. After working with little success in trading around Boston and Maine, he served as a volunteer in the war effort. Gallatin began teaching French to support himself, he obtained a position teaching French at Harvard in 1782. After the Revolutionary War, he went to New York and Philadelphia to deliver letters to eminent Americans which he had received in Paris. While in Philadelphia, Gallatin made an investment which proved successful, so that he was able to move to Fayette County, Virginia (now part of Pennsylvania), where he opened a country store. In 1789, Gallatin entered public service as a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, representing Republican views. In 1790, he was elected to the state legislature, and was re-elected twice. Although he was elected to the US Senate in 1793, he was declared ineligible after two months, since he had only been a citizen of the United States for eight years. In 1794, he helped bring about a peaceful settlement of the "Whiskey Rebellion." Gallatin returned to the State legislature, then served in the US Senate as a Republican. As a Senator, Gallatin promoted a system to establish the expenses of each government department in a permanent fashion, so that annual appropriations could be made. In addition, he suggested the establishment of the Committee of Ways and Means. In 1801, President Jefferson appointed him Secretary of the Treasury, a position he held until 1813. As Secretary of the Treasury, he succeeded in reducing the government debt, as well as taxes. After he left the Treasury Department, Gallatin became involved in the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Ghent, bringing the War of 1812 to a close. To reward him for this service, he was appointed Minister to France in 1815, where he helped John Quincy Adams prepare a commerce treaty with Britain, and helped William Eustis negotiate a treaty with the Netherlands in 1817. After several years of service abroad, Gallatin returned to the United States in 1823, refusing a cabinet position as Secretary of the Navy and a nomination for the vice-presidency. As President, John Quincy Adams appointed Gallatin Envoy Extraordinary to Great Britain. After returning to the United States, Gallatin became president of the National Bank of New York, and became involved with the movement which led to the establishment of New York University. When he retired, he remained involved in politics, writing papers and treatises on topical political and economic issues. He also explored his interest in literature and history. In 1842, Gallatin became a founder and the first president of the American Ethnological Society, and was elected president of the New York Historical Society in 1843. Gallatin died in Astoria, New York, on August 12, 1849.

Albert Gallatin Mackey was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of John Mackey (1765 - December 14, 1831), a physician, journalist and educator, and his wife. His father published The American Teacher's Assistant and Self-Instructor's Guide, containing all the Rules of Arithmetic properly Explained, etc. (Charleston, 1826), the most comprehensive work on arithmetic that had been published in the United States. [1] His son was Edmund William McGregor Mackey who became a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina.

After completing his early education, Albert Mackey taught school for some time to earn money for medical school. He graduated from the medical department of the College of South Carolina in 1832. He settled in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1838 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in that institution.

In 1844 he abandoned the practice of medicine. For the rest of his life, he wrote on a variety of subjects, but specialized in the study of several languages, the Middle Ages, and Freemasonry. [1] After being connected with several Charleston journals, he established in 1849 The Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany, a weekly magazine. He maintained it for three years, mostly by his own expense. He conducted a Quarterly 1858-1860 which he devoted to the same interests.

He acquired the Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and continental languages almost unaided, and lectured frequently on the intellectual and moral development of the Middle Ages. Subsequently, he turned his attention exclusively to the investigation of abstruse symbolism, and to cabalistic and Talmudic researches. [1]

He served as Grand Lecturer and Grand Secretary of The Grand Lodge of South Carolina, as well as Secretary General of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States. [2]

Mackey was a Union sympathizer during the Civil War and in July, 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port of Charleston. He was a delegate and president of the 1868 South Carolina Constitutional Convention. [3] He ran for the United States Senate in South Carolina in 1868, but was narrowly defeated by Republican Frederick A. Sawyer.

Mackey moved to Washington, D.C. in 1870. He died in Fortress Monroe, Virginia in 1881. [1]

Mackey's books were often revised and expanded during and after his lifetime, and published by many different publishers.

Cluskey, Michael W., ed. Speeches, Messages and Other Writings of the Hon. Albert G. Brown, a Senator in Congress from the State of Mississippi. Philadelphia: J.B. Smith Co., 1859.

Halsell, Willie D., ed. "Politics in an April Snow Storm." Journal of Mississippi History 31 (November 1969): 348-51.

Holder, Ray. "The Brown-Winans Canvass for Congress, 1849." Journal of Mississippi History 40 (November 1978): 353-73.

McCutchen, Samuel Proctor. "The Political Career of Albert Gallatin Brown." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1930.

Ranck, James Byrne. Albert Gallatin Brown: Radical Southern Nationalist. 1937. Reprint. Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1974.

Uncovering the Legacy of Albert Gallatin at Friendship Hill National Historic Site

Tucked away in the southwestern corner of the Laurel Highlands is one of Pennsylvania’s most historic homes. Known as Friendship Hill National Historic Site, this was the home of Albert Gallatin, one of the most influential men in American history. And, while Gallatin’s contributions to American history might be little known today, a visit to his Fayette County home offers visitors a chance to learn more about the man and his contributions to the American government.

Gallatin was born in the mid-18th century in Geneva, Switzerland. He immigrated to America in 1780, bouncing between several areas of New England before becoming a French professor at Harvard. He was involved in the buying and selling of land in western Pennsylvania, and purchased the land on which he’d build his home in 1786. He began building his home on a tract of land high above the Monongahela River in 1789.

Friendship Hill was on the edges of the wilderness when Gallatin built his home, and so he established the community of New Geneva near his home in 1798. His goal was to provide a new home for Europeans fleeing the French Revolution, much as French Azilum in northeastern Pennsylvania did, as well as providing a community near his home. However, the new community never took off, though there is still a small population living in the area today.

The first building was a Federalist-style brick home. Over the years, Gallatin and future owners added various additions to the home, creating a somewhat mishmash-style of architectural features. The last addition to the home was added in 1903, and the home was opened as a national historical site in 1976.

Visitors to the home can take a self-guided audio tour through the home to learn more about the home and Gallatin’s impact on the United States. During his time as the owner of the home, Gallatin served as a US Senator and Representative and the US Ambassador to both France and the United Kingdom. However, what Gallatin is most widely remembered for is his tenure as the Secretary of the Treasury.

Gallatin served in this position from 1801-1814, during the administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. His 13-year career makes him the longest serving Treasury Secretary in US history. During his tenure, Gallatin was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase, the first time in US history that the federal government acquired land, and helping Lewis and Clark plan their expedition (which, incidentally really left from Pittsburgh, not St. Louis).

As visitors tour through the home, the provided audio tour tells about the function of the room, the history of the home, and Gallatin’s importance to American history. One interesting anecdote told is the story of the Marquis de Lafayette’s visit to the home in 1825 during his tour of American. Shortly after Lafayette’s visit, Gallatin left the home, and eventually sold it in 1832. As much as Gallatin loved the home, his second wife was not accustomed to life outside of the city.

The home is sparsely furnished, but the chance to learn more about one of America’s forgotten early leaders makes a visit well worth your time, especially if you already find yourself in Fayette County, Greene County, or elsewhere in southwestern Pennsylvania.

Before leaving the area, take some time to stroll the grounds of Friendship Hill National Historic Site. There are more than nine miles of trails that crisscross the 600 acres at the site. One interesting destination is the gravesite of Albert Gallatin’s first wife, who died after just five years of marriage in 1789. The walk to the gravesite takes you past some of the estate’s most beautiful land and offers views over the Monongahela River.

Friendship Hill National Historic Site might not make many lists of must-visit destinations in Pennsylvania. However, those interested in learning about the history of early America will no doubt enjoy a visit to the site.

Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the United States Cabinet. The President appoints the individuals who serve in cabinet positions. The job of the Secretary of the Treasury is to advise the President on matters concerning the economy. The treasury secretary also helps plan the nation's budget and determines the amount of money apportioned to federal agencies. Albert Gallatin served as Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 until 1814. This thirteen year tenure is the longest that anyone has ever held that position.

Albert Gallatin's Qualifications

Albert Gallatin proved his qualifications from the beginning of his participation in the federal government. In 1794, Pennsylvania selected Mr. Gallatin to represent the state in the United States Senate. One of his first acts as senator was to demand a statement of the federal government's current financial situation.

Gallatin was removed from the Senate on a technicality but was elected to the House of Representatives in 1795. As a member of the House, he further proved his ability by creating and chairing the influential Ways and Means Committee. This committee determines what and how the government may spend federal money.All money spent by the government must be approved by Congress. All bills that propose spending money start in the House. The Ways and Means Committee is influential because it first hears a fiscal bill. The House usually accepts this committee's recommendation and either passes or rejects a bill.

When Thomas Jefferson was elected President in 1800, he believed that Albert Gallatin was the only member of his party capable of serving as his Secretary of the Treasury. Gallatin's ". persistent assaults on the financial policy of the Federalists. " led Jefferson to this conclusion. These opinions influenced Jefferson's choice of Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury.

The National Debt

The Jefferson administration had two main objectives in 1801: the reduction of the national debt and the reduction of direct taxes. Gallatin felt that ". the reduction of the public debt was certainly the principle in bringing me [Gallatin] into office. ". It was with this thought in mind that he began his first year in office.

According to Mr. Gallatin, on January 1, 1801, the United States was more than eighty million dollars in debt. Gallatin had a plan to reduce the debt. It called for the practice of economy within the government, particularly in the military. The two main sources of revenue for the reduction of the national debt were: capital gained through the sale of public lands and that revenue brought in through custom duties (import taxes).During the first year of Gallatin's term of office he succeeded in reducing the national debt by over two million dollars. In 1803 the government increased its debt fifteen million dollars when the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. Still, this major expense did not alter Gallatin's plan for the nation's economy. He continued to enforce his plan and by January 1, 1812, Gallatin had succeeded in reducing the national debt to just over forty-five million dollars.

Albert Gallatin left office in 1814. Those who came after him continued to enforce the measures to reduce the debt that he had started. In January, 1833 the federal government considered the national debt totally extinguished.

The Louisiana Purchase

In 1803 the United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France. This territory added over eight hundred thousand square miles to the United States. The area purchased covered much of what is now the western part of the country. The cost of the territory was approximately fifteen million dollars, about three cents an acre. Albert Gallatin was able to manage the budget so the United States could pay France the fifteen million dollars and still maintain the budget.

Gallatin felt that the acquisition of this land was good for the country, especially the area around Friendship Hill. It provided the United States and western Pennsylvania with an ocean port, New Orleans. Now, the residents of western Pennsylvania could easily ship their goods down river on keelboats to New Orleans. The port there also provided more customs duties, or import taxes, thus providing capital for the federal government. Albert Gallatin not only arranged for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, but he also arranged financing for the exploration of the new lands. Gallatin consider-ed the sale of public lands the best way to rid the nation of its debt. The Louisiana Territory provided the country with the land to sell. Gallatin funded expeditions through the Louisiana Territory so the territory could be described. He hoped this would increase the value of the western lands. Among the explorers were Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Thomas Freeman, and Peter Custis. Freeman and Custis explored the area around the Red River in Louisiana. Lewis and Clark explored the Missouri River Basin. During their travels they found the headwaters of the Missouri River. Lewis and Clark found that the Missouri River began at the confluence of three rivers. Lewis and Clark named these rivers after three prominent individuals of their time: Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin.

The National Road

Andrew Stewart
January 27, 1829

As early as 1802, Albert Gallatin believed the United States needed to improve its transportation routes. In 1808 he delivered a report to Congress which listed specific internal improvements. Among the improvements Gallatin named were: roads and canals connecting the north and the south, roads allowing access from the northern United States to the Great Lakes, and roads connecting the eastern and western areas of the country.

The east to west route suggested by Gallatin was the road that would become known as the National Road. Construction of the National Road began in 1811. The cost of the road averaged about thirteen thousand dollars per mile. Gallatin suggested that the federal government construct the road. He also arranged the finances of the nation to allow the federal government to pay for the road without falling deeper into debt. The National Road was opened from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, West Virginia, as a transportation route in 1818.It may be no coincidence that the course of the National Road is not far from Gallatin's home in southwestern Pennsylvania. The road proceeds through downtown Uniontown, approximately sixteen miles north of Friendship Hill. The new National Road would provide Gallatin with a better route between his home and the nation's capitol. Not only would construction of the National Road serve Gallatin's purpose, but it would help his western Pennsylvania neighbors. The road provided them with a route to take their trade goods to eastern markets.

The road, once known as the National Pike, still exists today. US Route 40 is the modern name given to the National Road. The original National Road ended near Vandalia, Illinois. Today US Route 40 can be followed across the nation from sea to shining sea.

Gallatin served in state and federal government

Gallatin served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1790 to 1792. He advocated a system of public education, but also displayed his lifelong interest in financial matters, supporting bills to abolish paper money, pay the public debt in specie, and establish a bank of Pennsylvania to help support business endeavors.

Pennsylvanians elected him to the U.S. Senate in 1793, but Gallatin was denied his seat, ostensibly because he had not been a U.S. citizen for nine years. Evidence suggests that his anti-Federalist activities were also to blame.

In 1794 the Whiskey Rebellion began in western Pennsylvania, and President George Washington moved quickly to put it down. Gallatin feared that the combination of a uniformed governmental presence along with the repression of public opinion could lead to dissolution of the Union. He also expressed concern that a vengeful military could turn on the citizenry. He argued that a free government should have authority that rests upon the consent of the people rather than force and oppression. Nevertheless, Gallatin urged the rebellious farmers to submit to government taxation.

Gallatin continued his political career by serving in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1795 to 1801.

In 1797 he became the leader of the Republican minority. He insisted that the Department of the Treasury be accountable to Congress and played an instrumental role in creating a standing committee on finance.

Albert Gallatin Brown: Fourteenth Governor of Mississippi: 1844-1848

Governor Albert Gallatin Brown was Mississippi’s youngest and perhaps its most popular antebellum governor. His election in 1843 ended the bitter division among the state’s Democrats over the issue of whether the state should honor the bonds from two failed banks, Planters Bank and Union Bank, and reunited the party. Following his re-election in 1845 by a large majority and the completion of his second term, Governor Brown was elected to the U. S. Congress, where he served until his appointment to the U. S. Senate in 1854.

Brown was born in Chester District, South Carolina, on May 31, 1813, and migrated to Copiah County in 1823. Brown attended Jefferson College and Mississippi College and then read law with Ephraim G. Peyton. After serving two terms in the state legislature, Brown was elected to the U. S. Congress when he was only twenty-four years old five years later he was elected circuit judge as a Democrat in a predominantly Whig district. In 1843, at age thirty-one, he was elected governor.

Governor Brown was a strong advocate of public education and tried, unsuccessfully, to establish a statewide system of free schools. He was more successful, however, in his effort to establish a state university. In 1844 Governor Brown signed the charter establishing the University of Mississippi at Oxford. The university opened in 1848.

After he was elected to the United States Senate, Brown became one of the most ardent defenders of states’ rights and was one of the South’s first advocates of secession. After Mississippi seceded and joined the Confederate States of America, Brown resigned his U.S. Senate seat and organized a military company known as Brown’s Rifles. Brown was stationed briefly in Virginia before his election as one of Mississippi’s two members in the Confederate Senate where he served until the end of the Civil War.

After the fall of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, Brown and other leaders, realizing that the South would not win the Civil War, advocated an immediate settlement and a negotiated peace treaty. Neither Mississippi nor the Confederate States of America would accept that suggestion, and the war continued for two more years. After the war was finally over, Brown advised the people of Mississippi to accept the consequences of military defeat and the emancipation of the state’s former slaves.

Governor Brown retired from public life after the Civil War and spent his last years practicing law. He died at his home in Terry, Mississippi, near Jackson, on June 12, 1880.

David Sansing, Ph.D., is history professor emeritus, University of Mississippi.

Gallatin: A Voice of Moderation During the Whiskey Rebellion

A portrait of Albert Gallatin

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Early in his political career Albert Gallatin became embroiled in the Whiskey Rebellion, where his courage, wisdom and moderation helped the region, and propelled him onto the national stage.

In the years after the Revolutionary War the land west of the Appalachian Mountains was the American frontier. Gallatin was attracted to this region and the potential it held. In 1786 he purchased property in western Pennsylvania which he named Friendship Hill. Within three years he had built a brick house on his 400-acre farm establishing himself as one of the wealthier local citizens. Most of his neighbors were poor farmers with very little money. These isolated families farmed their land and after the harvest converted their surplus grain into whiskey. Whiskey became the local currency.

The federal government passed a law that taxed distilled spirits, known as the whiskey tax, in the spring of 1791. The tax was very disagreeable to the western farmers, with whiskey being virtually their only marketable product. Another major complaint was that western farmers accused of breaking the law had to be tried in federal court, 300 miles away in Philadelphia. Many of the poor frontiersmen didn’t even have enough cash to pay the tax.

Gallatin's house on his farm Friendship Hill.

That July, Gallatin attended a meeting of local men to discuss the tax and work for its repeal. Gallatin was elected clerk. The resolve the men passed stated that the law was dangerous to liberty and particularly oppressive to the people of the western counties of Pennsylvania.

That fall a tax collector was tarred and feathered, and more were to follow. As the Whiskey Rebellion went forward, two simultaneous local movements protested the tax a peaceful one attempting to legally repeal the law, and a violent one attacking any supporters of the tax. Gallatin always supported the former.

A pattern developed, when officials tried to collect the tax, the rebels would retaliate with assaults and threats, and when no one attempted collection, things were quiet. After a lull, in 1794 the regional tax collector, John Neville, began working hard to collect the tax. Each attempt to open a tax office or hire a tax collector was countered with violence.

That June Congress modified the law, changing one of the most egregious elements. Local courts could now handle cases. With this change Gallatin thought resistance to the tax might go away. However, Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton had other plans.

Hamilton, President Washington, and the federalist government had been very upset with the western region’s lack of compliance with the law and the violence against tax collectors. One week before the new law went into effect, Hamilton had sixty-one farmers in western Pennsylvania charged with violating the law. The accused were summoned to court in Philadelphia. The marshal rode out to serve the farmers their papers.

President Washington reviews the militia troops

Gallatin had just arrived back at Friendship Hill, when he attended a meeting of local farmers. The marshal had given 30 men in the county their papers. Gallatin counseled his neighbors to pay the tax or give up distilling. At the meeting they heard the news that rebels had attacked Neville’s house and one of them had been killed.

Gallatin thought it was his duty to work towards a peaceful solution. He was selected to attend a regional meeting at Parkinson’s Ferry on August 14-15. He was elected to be the secretary of the meeting. Many men spoke of armed resistance. Gallatin and others voiced a moderate view, in favor of law and order. On the second day news arrived. The president had called out the militia to prepare for a march against the rebels, but he had also sent commissioners to negotiate with them.

Gallatin was one of the men who met with the commissioners. The commissioners were inflexible and wanted total submission. The disappointing results of the negotiations had to be reported back to the people on August 28 at Brownsville. Fearing their angry response no one wanted to speak. Gallatin agreed to be the first to address the gathering. In a “long, sensible and eloquent” speech he asked the men to accept submission. The delegates voted. A little over half in favor of submission. The angry rebels talked about kidnapping Gallatin, but fortunately did not carry out their plan.

The next month, the men of western Pennsylvania could vote on whether they wanted to submit to the law or not. The majority voted to submit, but it was not overwhelming. President Washington ordered the army to march west.

Portrait of Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton and other federalists mistakenly thought that Gallatin was a ringleader, and that he had stirred up violence. As the army headed across the mountains a friend wrote him there were "large rewards for your head,” and another said that his name was high on a list of men “who were to be destroyed.” Fearing for his safety Gallatin left the region.

When Secretary Hamilton arrived with the army, he vigorously tried to gather proof of Gallatin’s treason, even imprisoning witnesses. However, everyone testified that Gallatin had spoken for compliance and Hamilton never got any evidence.

That fall Gallatin got a pleasant surprise. Not even knowing he was on the ballot the two neighboring counties had elected him to the United States House of Representatives. That started three decades of work in the United States government.

During the Whiskey Rebellion Gallatin didn’t waiver from his principles, even though he was threatened by both the federalists and the rebels. Later he wrote he had made one misstep. One of the petitions he had signed not only outlined their complaints and asked for a repeal of the tax, but also said tax collectors were “unworthy of friendship” and deserved to be treated with contempt. He didn’t really agree with these sentiments, but believed they weren’t illegal. He said it was his only “political sin."

Compiled by Park Ranger Jane Clark

Walter, Raymond Jr., Albert Gallatin, Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1957

A Young Man's Life at Gallatin's Transmontania Academy

Robert Vinson buried in Gallatin City Cemetery

"I could relate many pleasant incidents of boyhood days, but must pass to March, 1856, when my father took me (from Louisiana) to Tennessee to go to school.

We made the entire trip from New Orleans to Nashville on the same steam boat.

Though twelve years old I do not remember much of the trip.

We made the trip from Nashville to Gallatin by Stage, but I don't know much about it, and don't remember how I met, or was received by my Aunts, but of course, it must have been with kindness.

I boarded with my Aunt Patsy Gray during the entire time of over two years, and it was a pleasant and agreeable home all the while. Their son, Frank Gray, two years older than me went to the same school at the same time.

The teacher was Dr. W. W. Lambain, who was from Baltimore. He was very strict and often whipped some scholar for failing in their lessons.

Nearly all that I know, in the commoner branches of education was at that school, called the "Transmontania Academy".

It was quite a little walk from Aunt Patsy's (Martha) to the school. There was no bridge over the town creek in those days and we had to cross on a large foot log.

My father remained in Gallatin all that summer, as it was his first visit in eight years, since leaving Tennessee in 1848, and it proved to be his last.

I had accounts at one or two stores, where I could get such things as needed.

I went to Sunday School and very often to Church with the family.

I did not go over to town much and very seldom at night."

The Historical Dilettante

There is implied self-interest in this massive, nation-changing acquisition: Gallatin encouraged the purchase of the Louisiana territory so Western PA would have access to an ocean port. Granted, it wasn't easy access, but still. Such self-interest is usually at the heart of most nation-building decisions.

Anyway, Gallatin didn't stop with buying up Louisiana. He spearheaded the building of what was once called the National Road (now Route 40) which coincidentally started in Cumberland MD not far from his home. He thus granted himself easier access to Washington DC.

Self-interest, thy poster child may just be Albert Gallatin.

Lewis & Clark's Excellent Adventure: loading kegs and party supplies onto a longboat at Fort Lafayette. Painting by Robert Griffing.

Drunken ship-builders notwithstanding, Lewis eventually got his boat made and set off with William Clark to change the nation's destiny by exploring and mapping its newly expanded interior.

This map from 1796 shows the location of the Fort along the Allegheny River, and describes it thusly:

Even as nothing. and indeed, nothing remains to remind us of Fort Lafayette

Fort Lafayette is at least recalled by means of an historical marker at Penn and Ninth Street in the downtown Cultural District, and is mentioned in another more recent marker at the edge of the Strip District which commemorates the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark expedition. But these are the only physical remnants in Pittsburgh to mention this architectural witness to history.

Albert Gallatin fared a bit better. His country estate in Fayette County near the Pennsylvania-West Virginia border is maintained by the National Park Service as the Friendship Hill National Historic Site his personal papers are a treasure trove of early republic history his interests in Native American cultures led him to found the American Ethnological Society (although his legacy related to Native cultures was firmly in favor of assimilation) he was interred at Trinity Churchyard in lower Manhattan and he has been honored with many place-names.

Some images below from Friendship Hill, Gallatin's home outside of Port Marion, PA between the Monongahela River and Route 166 in Springhill Township. The home was constructed in three phases over a 39 year period beginning in 1786. Gallatin never spent much time there and abandoned it entirely by 1825, selling it in 1832. The house endured subsequent additions and passed through several owners until its purchase by The National Park Service in 1979. The property was restored at a cost of $10 million and opened to the public in 1992.

Watch the video: Who Was Albert Gallatin?


  1. Napona

    no words! just wow! ..

  2. Brakasa

    Thanks immense for the explanation, now I will not admit such a mistake.

  3. Abbud

    For me it is a very interesting topic. Give with you we will communicate in PM.

  4. Alborz

    Just a great thought has visited you

Write a message