Chinquapin- YN-12 - History

Chinquapin- YN-12 - History

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A dwarf chestnut tree.

(YN-12: dp. 560,1. 163'2"; b. 30'6"; dr. 11'8"; s. 12 k.;
cpl. 48; a. 1 3"; cl. Aloe)

Chinquapin, ex-Fir, renamed on 16 October 1940, was launched 15 July 1941 by General Engineering and Dry Dock Co., Alameda, Calif.; sponsored by Mrs. J. Lane; and placed in service 29 October 1941. She was commissioned 6 January 1943, Lieutenant R. D. Abernathy, USNR, in command.

Assigned to the 12th Naval District, Chinquapin conducted net, salvage, and towing operations out of Tiburon Net Depot until 31 December 1943 when she sailed for Pearl Harbor, arriving 10 January 1944. On 20 January she was redesignated AN-17.

Chinquapin tended nets and laid moorings at Majuro, Kwajalein, and Eniwetok from 15 February 1944 to 27 July, then supported the Marianas occupation by similar operations at Saipan and Guam until 28 October. Returning via Pearl Harbor to San Francisco as a convoy escort, Chinquapin was overhauled, and on 3 February 1945 sailed via Pearl Harbor and Ulithi for Okinawa, arriving 1 May for net, mooring and transport operations there until 30 October. She returned to Astoria Oreg., 11 December and was placed out of commission in reserve 6 March 1946.

Chinquapin received three battle stars for World War II service.

Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits

The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits is a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and regulates the transit of naval warships. The Convention guarantees the free passage of civilian vessels in peacetime, and restricts the passage of naval ships not belonging to Black Sea states. The terms of the Convention have been a source of controversy over the years, most notably about the Soviet Union's military access to the Mediterranean Sea.

Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits
TypeMultilateral treaty
Signed20 July 1936 ( 1936-07-20 )
LocationMontreux, Switzerland
Effective9 November 1936 ( 1936-11-09 )

Signed on 20 July 1936 at the Montreux Palace in Switzerland, [1] the Convention permitted Turkey to remilitarise the Straits. It went into effect on 9 November 1936 and was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on 11 December 1936. [2] It remains in force.

The 21st-century Kanal Istanbul (Istanbul Canal) project, currently under construction, may be a possible bypass to the Montreux Convention and allow greater Turkish autonomy with respect to the passage of military ships (which are limited in number, tonnage, and weaponry) from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. The Kanal project, involves the building of a 45 km (28 mi) long artificial waterway through Thrace, connecting the Sea of Marmara with the Black Sea. [3] While this route will run nearly parallel, but not via the Bosporus, ships transitting through it are arguably not subject to the terms of the Montreux Convention. [4] Currently shipping traffic through the Dardanelles is heavily congested, with long wait times to pass through the Bosporus. The Kanal project‘s primary purpose is to clear up shipping traffic and boost revenue by providing an alternate maritime route. However, the Kanal’s potential ability to end nearly a century of limitations imposed by the Montreux regime was never overlooked by both commentators and politicians, and in January 2018, then Turkish Prime Minister and former Transport Minister Binali Yıldırım announced that the Kanal would in fact not be subject to the Montreux Convention. [5] This announcement was received negatively by the Russian media and government and many have disputed the Turkish government‘s interpretation of the convention‘s original terms. [6] [7]


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Chinquapin, also spelled chinkapin, any of several species of trees in various genera of the beech family (Fagaceae). Notably, they include several deciduous trees of the genus Castanea and evergreen trees and shrubs of the genus Castanopsis and Chrysolepis.

Chinquapins in the chestnut genus Castanea have hairy leaves and twigs and single-seeded burs. The American chinquapin, also known as dwarf chestnut (Castanea pumila), is found throughout much of the eastern and southern United States, though populations have declined because of infection by chestnut blight, a fungal disease. It ranges in size from a small shrub to a tree up to 14 metres (46 feet) high. Its nuts are consumed locally and its durable wood has been used for telephone poles, fence posts, and railroad ties. The Henry chinquapin (C. henryi), an ornamental and timber tree native to China, sometimes attains a height of 28 metres (92 feet).

The evergreen chinquapins of the genus Castanopsis comprise about 110 Asian species. Many are found in tropical areas, and several are considered keystone species in their forest habitats. Most produce edible nuts, and some are cultivated as ornamental or timber trees.

The taxonomy of the genus is somewhat contentious, and the two North American species are now placed in the genus Chrysolepis. The golden, or giant, evergreen chinquapin ( Chrysolepis chrysophylla), is native to western North America. It may be 45 metres (148 feet) tall and has lance-shaped leaves about 15 cm (6 inches) long, coated beneath with golden-yellow scales. The bush, or Sierra evergreen, chinquapin ( Chrysolepis sempervirens) is a small spreading mountain shrub of western North America and was also formerly of the genus Castanopsis.

The water chinquapin is another name for the American lotus (Nelumbo lutea). The chinquapin oak refers to Quercus prinoides and to Q. muehlenbergii (see white oak).

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.

Aloe-class net laying ship

The Aloe-class net laying ships were a class of thirty-two steel-hulled net laying ships built prior to the US entry into World War II. The lead ship, USS Aloe, was laid down in October 1940 and launched the following January the final member, USS Yew, was launched in October 1941. They were assigned tree and plant names in alphabetical order, but eight ships (in order Cottonwood, Dogwood, Fir, Juniper, Maple, Poplar, Sycamore, and Walnut) were renamed prior to launching, producing discontinuities in the name order. These ships were originally classed as YN and numbered 1-32, but were reclassified and renumbered in 1944 as AN-6 through AN-37.

  • United States Navy
  • Ecuadorian Navy
  • French Navy
  • Turkish Naval Forces

These ships had a unique appearance with a pair of "horns" jutting out from either side of the bow, each functioning as a fixed crane with a capacity of 22 short tons (20 t). They were powered by a pair of diesel engines which provided electricity for both propulsion and lifting machinery there were also two auxiliary diesels and an evaporator for fresh water. Between the "horns" was an opening through which nets could be hauled, bridged by a catwalk.

All members of this class survived the war though USS Mahogany was caught in a typhoon in September 1945 and decommissioned the following year. Three ships were transferred to the French Navy in 1944 and another three were so transferred in the 1960s two others went to the Turkish and Ecuadorian navies respectively. Three others were retained for various purposes, while the remainder were put into the reserve fleet shortly after the war.

General Chinkapin Description

Castanea pumila var. pumila can be characterized as a large, spreading, smooth-barked multistemmed shrub, 10 to 15 feet tall, or as a small tree occasionally single stemmed and 30 to 50 feet tall. Large trees are sometimes found in the landscape, especially where they have been groomed and encouraged to grow and where there are few competing trees.

Planting & Care

Spacing 50' - 60'
Pruning Oaks require minimal pruning. Pruning consists of the removal of dead, diseased, or damaged branches, maintaining size (width) within your landscape
Fertilization Do not fertilize at planting. Once the trees are established, fertilize in early spring (Mar-April) as growth begins. Do not fertilize in the fall, which could promote late season tender growth that can be damaged by early frosts.
Watering Newly planted trees should be watered regularly. This is the most critical step in the establishment of your new trees. Please see the Watering section under "How to plant and grow" in our Learning Center.

A brief history

Among other names, the Ozark chinquapin was known to Cherokee Indians as the bread tree, and they ground the nuts into flour. Settlers in the 1800s used its rot-resistant wood to make fence posts and its bark to produce a purple dye. During Prohibition, moonshiners lit its clear-burning wood to avoid detection from revenuers. Daniel Moerman’s 1998 book Native American Ethnobotany cites the chestnut, part of the same genus, as a treatment for whooping cough.

But the sweet-tasting nut, released from a small golden hedgehog of a burr, was the real prize. A protein jackpot, it attracted more wildlife any other Ozark forage. The Ozark Chinquapin Foundation’s game cameras have captured turkeys, deer, bobcats, coyotes, and hogs foraging for the nuts.

“People would go out and get a whole sack, a half a bushel of them,” says Hearold Adams, 99, of Deer, Arkansas. “That’s how good they were. Then all of a sudden, they were gone. Most people don’t even remember they ever existed.”

In the late 1990s, Adams was the one who first taught Bost about the lost tree. Near Adams’ home is a ridgeline once known as Bear Pen Ridge. Black bears were so attracted to the heavy concentration of ridgetop chinquapins that locals used the area for trapping.

Bost breaks down why his work with the Ozark chinquapin is significant beyond the species. He brings up the ash tree, which is facing near-complete die-off at the hands of the invasive emerald ash borer. "There's almost 100 percent fatality, and they're not waiting for the emerald ash borer to kill them,” he says. “They're just cutting them down. If somebody cut down every single chinquapin to remove hosts for the chestnut blight, we wouldn't be able to do what we're doing today."

Flowering occurs after the first leaves have expanded. Two or three types of flowers and inflorescences are borne in the leaf axils of current season's growth (Fig. 2). Unisexual male catkins appear near the bases of the shoots and bisexual catkins containing both male and female flowers are found nearer the terminal ends of the shoots. The female or pistillate flowers occur near the bases of these bisexual catkins and the male or staminate flowers near the tips. Occasionally, bisexual catkins are replaced by female catkins (catkins bearing only pistillate flowers).

In Middle Georgia, pollen shed of the unisexual male catkins normally occurs during the first week of May. The pistillate flowers of the bisexual catkins are normally receptive during the second week of May, several days before the staminate flowers of these bisexual catkins shed pollen. This type of blooming sequence or maturation of flowers has been called duodichogamy and hetero-duodichogamy (Stout 1928 Vilkomerson 1940). Chinkapins are rarely self-fruitful and cross pollination is necessary to ensure a good nut crop. However, Morris (1914) reported that plants of C. pumila may set viable seeds without pollination. This apomictic behavior has been reported in Chinese chestnuts by McKay (1942).

The Allegheny chinkapin is normally ready for harvesting in early September. Harvest must be prompt in order to gather nuts before wildlife (birds and small mammals) remove the entire crop (Fig. 3). One single brown, lustrous, rounded nut is contained in each spiny green involucre (bur) (Fig. 4). The burs of chinkapin are normally no more than 1.4 to 4.6 cm in diameter and split into 2 valves at nut maturity. In contrast to other chestnut species, chinkapins normally remain attached to the bur at the hilum for several days after the bur has opened. Also, the burs and catkins do not abscise at harvest time, but remain attached until later in the fall or even until the following season. On each catkin, the more basal burs usually ripen before the more distal ones. These characteristics make chinkapins very difficult to harvest. The burs cannot be shaken or easily picked from the trees. After the burs open, but before the nuts fall, the exposed nuts are tempting morsels for birds or climbing mammals. Even at the peak of harvest, shaking a chinkapin branch will bring down only a small percentage of its crop, since half of the nuts are already gone, and the other half have not opened yet. If the unopened burs are cut or torn from the branches, very few of them will subsequently open, with most requiring a tedious threshing. Complicating the harvest and subsequent use is the fact that chinkapins are fall germinating. Often the radicle emerges while the nuts are still on the tree. Some of the chinkapin clones from isolated sites in Georgia bear nuts averaging 480/kg (fresh weight) however, the normal range is 800 to 1,320/kg (Fig. 5). According to Bailey (1960), C. pumila has been marketed in considerable quantities and for more than two centuries (Woodroof 1979) however, we seldom see mention of chinkapins for sale in any recent state market bulletins.

Chinkapins contain 5% fat, 5% protein, 40% starch, and 50% water (Woodroof 1979). Caloric content is 4,736䖆 cal/g ash-free dry weight ash content is 4.0ۮ% (Payne et al. 1982). Caloric and ash content were determined by standard methods (Paine 1971) with a Parr Model 1341 oxygen bomb calorimeter from four 1 g samples of C. pumila kernels.

Chinquapin- YN-12 - History

'Chinquapin' (James Gibson, R. 1959). Seedling# 29-3DD. TB, 36" (91 cm), Midseason bloom. Color Class YO5. Sienna-gold self. 'Taholah' x seedling# 26-9A. Cooley 1960. High Commendation 1959 Honorable Mention 1960 Award of Merit 1962.


From Fleur De Lis Gardens catalog 1963: CHINQUAPIN (Gib. '60) M. 34 in. (Taholah x Sdlg.). A huge plicata of golden brown and cream. Standards are solid golden brown and the falls are the same color with a creamy area in the center that is speckled and brushed with copper. Nicely formed and quite ruffled and waved. A.M. 1962. 8.00.
From Rainbow Hybridizing Gardens catalog 1963: CHINQUAPIN (Gibson '60) M-36". Large plicata with golden brown standards falls same with ivory shading toward center, speckled and blended, with brown bronze beard . HM'&O, AM'62. Taholah X 26·9A of Orloff, Misty Rose and Gibson Girl blood). Regularly $8.00 on $10 order $7.20 on $25 order $6.40.
Reported Rebloom in: TX USDA Zone 7 [The 2012 Cumulative Checklist of Reblooming Iris, p. 41]

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Corkwood received one battle star for World II service.

USS Sumner (AG-32/AGS-5) was a survey ship in the United States Navy. She was named in honor of Thomas Sumner. She was originally commissioned as a submarine tender as USS Bushnell (AS-2), in honor of David Bushnell, the inventor of the first American submarine.

USS Turkey (AM-13) was an Lapwing-class minesweeper acquired by the U.S. Navy for the dangerous task of removing mines from minefields laid in the water to prevent ships from passing.

USS Connolly (DE-306) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She was sent off into the Pacific Ocean to protect convoys and other ships from Japanese submarines and fighter aircraft. She performed escort and antisubmarine operations in dangerous battle areas and returned home with two battle stars.

USS Chickasaw (AT-83/ATF-83) was a Navajo-class fleet tug constructed for the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Ocean in World War II and the Korean War, and was awarded six battle stars for World War II and two battle stars during the Korean War.

USS Edmonds (DE-406) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. At the end of World War II, she returned home proudly with five battle stars to her credit. When the Korean War started, she was recommissioned and, at that war's end, she returned home with two more battle stars.

USS LST-888 was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Late in her career she was renamed Lee County (LST-888) — after counties in twelve Southern and Midwestern states, the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear that name — but saw no active service under that name.

USS Snowbell (YN-71/AN-52) was a Ailanthus-class net laying ship which served the U.S. Navy during World War II. She operated in the Pacific Ocean until she was destroyed by Typhoon Louise off Okinawa, 9 October 1945.

USS Chinquapin (YN-12/AN-17) was an Aloe-class net laying ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Originally ordered as USS Fir (YN-2), she was renamed and renumbered to Chinquapin (YN-12) in October 1940 before construction began. She was launched in July 1941, and completed in October 1941. Placed in service at that time without being commissioned, she was commissioned in January 1943, and decommissioned in March 1946. She was placed in reserve at that time and scrapped in 1976.

Watch the video: Chinquapin Hunting Guitar Build-a-Break u0026 Harmony Lesson!


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