Page from the Masnavi

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ABOUT THE HISTORY OF MASNAVI STUDY CENTERS

Due to the great fame of Rumi's Masnavi in the late Ottoman Empire, the Masnavi was studied not just in Mevlevi centers [tekke] for Mevlevi students, but for the general public. There used to be Masnavi libraries with ongoing classes throughout the Ottoman Empire. However, this gradually declined and the tradition of maintaining such centers has died out. In a book by Professor Franklin Lewis ("Rumi, Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings and Poetry of Jalâl al-Din Rûmi," 2001, 2003 revised edition), he mentions that a Turkish-language poet named Fejzulah Hadzibajric (died 1990), who lived in the former Yugoslavia, ". . . kept alive the tradition of the Dâr al-Masnavi, or Masnavi College, and composed the most recent Masnavi commentary in a western language" (p. 475).

The last Dâr al-Masnavî in the Ottoman Empire was built in 1844 (Golpinarli asserted an earlier date, 1778) by a non-Mevlevi, Shaykh Morâd Bokhârî (died 1848) of the Naqshbandi Order it was built in the Çarshamba neighborhood in the Fatih district of Istanbul on what is presently named "Mesnevihane" Street. He "founded a Dâr al-Masnavi in Istanbul he began a commentary on the work in September 1839 and by the evening of April 25, 1845 was at work on Book 6" (Lewis, p. 480). Shaykh Morâd Bokhârî was allowed to wear a Mevlevi turban when he taught Masnavi.

Some buildings still remain of the old "Mesnevihane" (as it was called in Turkish): the mosque, also used as a classroom, a minaret shaped like a tall Mevlevi hat, a mausoleum (that contains the tomb of the founder), and an ablutions fountain. In former times there was a library, a room for devotional prayer-chanting [tevhidhane], a kitchen, dervish cells, and a part of the building reserved for men [selaml I k].

During the nineteenth century there was also another Dâr al-Masnavî in Istanbul, in Küçük Mustafapasha, where a well-known Masnavi teacher [Masnavî-khwân Turkish, Mesnevihan], Hoça Husameddin Efendi, taught.

In addition, the Masnavi was also taught in the Sultan's palace and in mosques in which the Sultan regularly attended for prayers. After Dâmâd Ibrahîm Pâshâ (died 1730) decreed that the Masnavi was to be taught in the religious college [madrassa] which had been built in his name in Hamzawiyâ, Masnavi became part of the curriculum in other religious colleges as well. The first Masnavi teacher at Fatih mosque was the Mevlevi Masnavi teacher, Esad Dede after him was Mevlevi Shaykh Karah I sarl I Ahmed Efendi.

After the Mevelevi Order, together with all other sufi orders, was made illegal by the modern Turkish Republic in 1925, the Masnavi was not taught in mosques or in public until 1948. At that time, Mevlevi Shaykh Tahiru 'l-Mevlevi Efendi (Tahir Olgun), began to teach Masnavi in Istanbul at the Suleymaniye and Laleli mosques until his death (1951). After that his successor, Mevlevi Shaykh Shefik Can Efendi [Shafîq Jân] taught Masnavi at several locations in Istanbul and Üsküdar from 1960 until his death (2005).

At the present time, a woman disciple of Shefik Can Efendi named Nur Art I ran (who used to assist him to teach public classes after his eyesight deteriorated in 1999) is teaching Mesnevi classes to the public in Istanbul and Üsküdar.

The following is translated from a chapter in a book about the Mevlevi tradition by the great Turkish Mevlevi scholar, Golpinarli (died 1982). It is translated here into English from a Persian translation of Golpinarli's work.


Studies of the Masnavi

There are a number of scholarly works written about themes and teachings in the Masnavi, such as written by: Khalifa `Abdul Hakim ("The Metaphysics of Rumi," 1933, published in Lahore, Pakistan) William C. Chittick ("The Sufi Doctrine of Rumi: An Introduction," 1974, published in Tehran, Iran) K. Khosla ("The Sufism of Rumi," 1987), a Theosophist, originally from India John Renard ("All the King's Falcons: Rumi on Prophets and Revelation," 1994), a revision of a doctoral dissertation (1978) done under the direction of Professor Annemarie Schimmel. 5 Other books contain very informative chapters about Rumi's teachings in the Masnavi, such as by Annemarie Schimmel, ("The Triumphant Sun," 1978, "Rumi's Theology," pp. 225-366) by Afzal Iqbal ("The Life and Work of Jalaluddin Rumi," 1956,"The Message of the Mathnawi" and "The Poet As a Thinker," pp. 175-283) by Franklin D. Lewis ("Rumi-- Past and Present, East and West: The Life Teachings and Poetry of Jal'l al-Din Rumi," 2000, "The Teachings," pp. 394-419).


Community Reviews

The Masnavi, or Masnavi-i Ma&aposnavi, also written Mesnevi, Mathnawi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi poet. It is one of the best known and most influential works of Sufism. The Masnavi is a series of six books of poetry that together amount to around 25,000 verses or 50,000 lines. It is a spiritual text that teaches Sufis how to reach their goal of being truly in love with God.

Listen to the story t

The Masnavi, or Masnavi-i Ma'navi, also written Mesnevi, Mathnawi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi poet. It is one of the best known and most influential works of Sufism. The Masnavi is a series of six books of poetry that together amount to around 25,000 verses or 50,000 lines. It is a spiritual text that teaches Sufis how to reach their goal of being truly in love with God.

Listen to the story told by the reed,
of being separated.

“Since I was cut from the reedbed,
I have made this crying sound.

Anyone apart from someone he loves
understands what I say.

Anyone pulled from a source
longs to go back.

At any gathering I am there,
mingling in the laughing and grieving,

a friend to each, but few
will hear the secrets hidden

within the notes. No ears for that.
Body flowing out of spirit,

spirit up from body: no concealing
that mixing. But it’s not given us

to see the soul. The reed flute
is fire, not wind. Be that empty.”

تاریخ نخستین خوانش این نسخه: ماه فوریه سال 2001میلادی

عنوان: مثنوی معنوی؛ شاعر: رومی؛ مقدمه: محمدعلی اسلامی ندوشن؛ خوشنویس مقدمه: غلامحسین امیرخانی؛ تذهیب شمسه: محمد طریقتی؛ خوشنویس متن به خط نستعلیق: سیدعلی سجادی؛ تهران، انجمن خوشنویسان ایران، 1379، شابک 9646271022؛ موضوع شعر شاعران ایرانی - سده 13م

اثری نفیس با چاپ بسیار خوب از انجمن خوشنویسان ایران، اسم کتاب درعنوان فارسی روی جلد: مثنوی جلال الدین محمد مولوی، در اوراق مشخصات عنوان اثر: مثنوی مولوی؛ و در پشت جلد: مثنوی معنوی: با حروف لاتین نوشته شده است، شامل مقدمه، دفتر اول تا ششم

بشنو از نی چون حکایت میکند، - وز جدائیها شکایت میکند
کز نیستان تا مرا ببریده اند، - از نفیرم مرد و زن نالیده اند
سینه خواهم شرحه شرحه از فراق، - تا بگویم شرح درد اشتیاق
هر کسی کو دور ماند از اصل خویش، - باز جوید روزگار وصل خویش
من به هر جمعیتی نالان شدم، - جفت بدحالان و خوشحالان شدم
هر کسی از ظن خود شد یار من، - از درون من نجست اسرار من
سر من از ناله من دور نیست، - لیک چشم و گوش را آن نور نیست
تن زجان و جان ز تن مستور نیست، - لیک کس را دید جان دستور نیست

تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 20/09/1399هجری خورشیدی؛ ا. شربیانی . more

My first encounter with Rumi. The audio version of the book was strangely much better than the written book. The narrator, Anton Lesser, recites Book 1 of the Masnavi with tremendous verve and flair. However this unfortunately only comprises of 2/5 of the book. The written version of the book was harder to get through. Alam Williams tries to render the idiom as fairly as he can but for some reason, his style of translation makes the prose seem disjointed. I switched to Mojadeddi for Book2, and t My first encounter with Rumi. The audio version of the book was strangely much better than the written book. The narrator, Anton Lesser, recites Book 1 of the Masnavi with tremendous verve and flair. However this unfortunately only comprises of 2/5 of the book. The written version of the book was harder to get through. Alam Williams tries to render the idiom as fairly as he can but for some reason, his style of translation makes the prose seem disjointed. I switched to Mojadeddi for Book2, and the prose was easier to follow, more coherent, because Mojadeddi stretches the English language as far as possible to make it rhyme. Mostly this works but because English is not Persian sometimes his efforts obfuscated the text.

Spiritual truths are very subjective. As it says in Surah Waqiah 'None may touch this book except the pure'. It is difficult to discern an underlying theme but one message that can be most definitely gleaned is not to rely exclusively on the constructs of reason. To have faith that illuminates you in your path you must have that requiste 'Belief in the unseen'. Conversely, if you only believe in what you see your intellect will only take you so far. As is explained in my favouire quote:

'Book knowledge fills your head seductively it beckons you and seeks authority don't lose your head be like your own foot sole and then take refuge with the mystic Pole love from a fool is false seduction friend.
There You'll Be Kings don't look down with disdain though you be honey seek his sugar cane.
Your thoughts a form while his thought is the soul
Your gold's false mines belong to this great pole now seek yourself in him you're really he fly to him to as doves do constantly if you don't want to serve him now with care
You're in the dragons jaws just like a bear perhaps the teacher will deliver you and pull you from all harm as he can do
You have no strength so weep in fits all day You're blind so from the guide don't turn away

This however is not a book of Chinese style aphorisms. Rumi requires rumination. . more

[This is part of my Around the World Reading Challenge which I began in 2014/2015.]

Obviously, Afghanistan has been in the news for a long time. They have a very long and storied history, were conquered by many peoples, and before Islam took hold, the Afghan people were Buddhists and even Zoroastrians, in the main. Literacy is not very high in Afghanistan, but poetry has endured throughout the centuries. There are a few modern poets, but I decided to go classical and read some Rumi. Rumi is claim [This is part of my Around the World Reading Challenge which I began in 2014/2015.]

Obviously, Afghanistan has been in the news for a long time. They have a very long and storied history, were conquered by many peoples, and before Islam took hold, the Afghan people were Buddhists and even Zoroastrians, in the main. Literacy is not very high in Afghanistan, but poetry has endured throughout the centuries. There are a few modern poets, but I decided to go classical and read some Rumi. Rumi is claimed by Iran, as well, but he was born in one of the provinces of what is now Afghanistan, but was Persia back then.

My selection is a translation of the first volume of Rumi's Masnavi-ye Ma'navi, or Spiritual Verses. The complete poem runs to some 64,000 lines and has been abridged in prose by several people into English. The version I obtained from the library is translated by Alan Williams, and he explains in his introduction that he attempted to keep the form and meter of the poetry as much as possible.

The one drawback of reading this edition on the Kindle is that the endnotes are not linked to the passages themselves. It would have been extremely helpful, as Williams' notes are very extensive. The book is beautiful, and has some wonderful stories, but also a lot of allusions that were lost on me as I have not read the Koran. I feel that, if I were more well versed in Islamic writings, I would have gotten more out of this. As it stands, I am glad that I read it and experienced it, if only on the surface. . more

The version I read of the Masnavi wasn&apost on Goodreads so I&aposm reviewing the Masnavi, not this translation.

So I knew I&aposd be faced with more of Rumi than the endless phrases yanked out of context and endlessly compiled in small poetry books, and I also realize he is a product of his time and culture, but it was still tough to ignore Rumi&aposs prejudice. There are stories of Jewish kings trying to eradicate Christianity (how silly, it has always been the opposite), warnings of hell for people who rejec The version I read of the Masnavi wasn't on Goodreads so I'm reviewing the Masnavi, not this translation.

So I knew I'd be faced with more of Rumi than the endless phrases yanked out of context and endlessly compiled in small poetry books, and I also realize he is a product of his time and culture, but it was still tough to ignore Rumi's prejudice. There are stories of Jewish kings trying to eradicate Christianity (how silly, it has always been the opposite), warnings of hell for people who reject the "true prophet", women held up as examples of rejection of reason, and on and on - and there is a LOT of it.

Yet of course Rumi DOES transcend his time and place. He has breakthroughs where he rises to embrace all religions and people, reminding us that the fiery passionate longing heart eradicates our differences, and he continually acknowledges the false spirituality that can arise in his own religion, even among Sufis.

I'm short, Rumi is human. I still love him. He still makes me seek God. And what you miss in all the abundant poetry books are his stories. Rumi is as beautiful a story teller as he is a poet. . more

ay qaowm-e ba hajj rafta kujaa-aid kujaa-aid
oh community of pilgrims (Hajis)! where are you? where are you ?

ma&aposshooq hameenjaast beyaa-aid beeyaa-aid
the beloved one is here. come over. come over
(listen-up listen up).

ma&aposshooq-e tu hamsaaya-e deewaar ba deewaar
like a wall to wall neighbor your beloved is close by

dar baadeeyya sargashta shumaa dar chee hawaa-aid?
what is it that you&aposre wishing for by wandering the deserts ?

ay qaowm-e ba hajj rafta kujaa-aid kujaa-aid
oh community of pilgrims (Haj ay qaowm-e ba hajj rafta kujaa-aid kujaa-aid
oh community of pilgrims (Hajis)! where are you? where are you ?

ma'shooq hameenjaast beyaa-aid beeyaa-aid
the beloved one is here. come over. come over
(listen-up listen up).

ma'shooq-e tu hamsaaya-e deewaar ba deewaar
like a wall to wall neighbor your beloved is close by

dar baadeeyya sargashta shumaa dar chee hawaa-aid?
what is it that you're wishing for by wandering the deserts ?

ay qaowm-e ba hajj rafta kujaa-aid kujaa-aid
oh community of pilgrims (Hajis)! where are you? where are you ?

ma'shooq hameenjaast beyaa-aid beeyaa-aid
the beloved one is here. come over. come over
(listen-up listen up).

gar qasd-e shumaa deedan-e aan khaana-e jaan ast
if you intent to (clearly) see that cherished house (the ka'aba)

awwal rukh-e aaeena ba sayqal bezidaa-aid
then first polish away the haze from (your heart's) mirror.

ay qaowm-e ba hajj rafta kujaa-aid kujaa-aid
oh community of pilgrims (Hajis)! where are you? where are you ?

ma'shooq hameenjaast beyaa-aid beeyaa-aid
the beloved one is here. come over. come over . more

The most influential Sufi poem ever written, the six books, Book Two is concerned with the challenges facing the seeker of Sufi enlightenment. In particular it focuses on the struggle against the self, and how to choose the right companions in order to progress along the mystical path. By interweaving amusing stories and profound homilies, Rumi instructs his readers in a style that still speaks directly to them.

در مورد شعر
https://www.goodreads.com/author_blog.
The most influential Sufi poem ever written, the six books, Book Two is concerned with the challenges facing the seeker of Sufi enlightenment. In particular it focuses on the struggle against the self, and how to choose the right companions in order to progress along the mystical path. By interweaving amusing stories and profound homilies, Rumi instructs his readers in a style that still speaks directly to them.

The most comprehensive literary piece on Sufi mysticism, the Whinfield translation is widely acknowledged as the best so far. A great "introductory course" before tackling scholarly articles on Sufism (i.e., "Fundamentals of Rumi&aposs Thought" by Sefik Can, ISBN: 1932099794), and immensely enjoyable to read!

Also available on www.omphaloskepsis.com/ebooks The most comprehensive literary piece on Sufi mysticism, the Whinfield translation is widely acknowledged as the best so far. A great "introductory course" before tackling scholarly articles on Sufism (i.e., "Fundamentals of Rumi's Thought" by Sefik Can, ISBN: 1932099794), and immensely enjoyable to read!

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The Masnavi, Book One

Rumi's Masnavi is widely recognized as the greatest Sufi poem ever written, and has been called 'the Koran in Persian'. The thirteenth-century Muslim mystic Rumi composed his work for the benefit of his disciples in the Sufi order named after him, better known as the whirling dervishes. In order to convey his message of divine love and unity he threaded together entertaining stories and penetrating homilies. Drawing from folk tales as well as sacred history, Rumi's poem is often funny as well as spiritually profound.

Jawid Mojaddedi's sparkling new verse translation of Book One is consistent with the aims of the original work in presenting Rumi's most mature mystical teachings in simple and attractive rhyming couplets.
ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.


About Masnavi

The Masnavi of Jalal-ud-din Rumi is said to have been forty-three (43) years engaged in writing the Masnavi. Often whole nights were spent in its composition, Jalal reciting and his friend Hasam copying it down and sometimes singing portions of the verse in his beautiful voice. At the completion of the first book Hasam's wife died, and two years elapsed before the work was continued.

The Masnavi is full of profound mysteries, and is a most important book in the study of Sufiism mysteries which must, for the most part, be left to the discernment of the reader. Jalal himself has said that great Love is silent. It is in Silence that we shall come to understand the supreme Mystery of Love that has no comparison.

Rumi’s Masnavi is probably the longest mystical poem ever written by a single author from any religious tradition. Although the content of each book of the Masnavi is too rich and diverse to be neatly categorized, one can none the less observe a logic to the selection and order of the major stories. For instance, those of
Book One seem to be presented in the order of progression on the Sufi path as far as the climax represented by the final story about HazratAli (RA).

11 comments:

Thanks for sharing this uplifing poem.

I wish that all of this was translated into English. Maybe I need to learn to read Urdu. Thank you for sharing.

Thanks for your nice post.It gives us really lot of information to do this.I am very optimistic about it.
Spiritual Comics

very good informations about masnavi.

Main mukammal phadna chahti hu

nice old collection.
they were realy Spiritual Couplets.
thanks for posting.
best regards:
http://mp3videosongs123.blogspot.com

thanks for the guide, but please post or upload masnavi rumi Urdu translation with sharah. thanks

Hay eshq da jalva har har ja . khud he aashiq te mashooq banya

Jazak Allah khair for this wonderful website. I'm wondering if there is a printed version available? I couldn't find the cover of the book, to find out who is the urdu translator, and how to look to purchase this beautiful translation into urdu. Please let us know. Thanks


The Masnavi, Book Two

Book Two of Rumi's Masnavi is concerned with the challenges facing the seeker of Sufi enlightenment. In particular it focuses on the struggle against the self, and how to choose the right companions in order to progress along the mystical path. By interweaving amusing stories and profound homilies, Rumi instructs his followers in a style that still speaks directly to us. In this volume, stories such as 'Moses and the Shepherd', 'The Foolhardy Man who Trusted a Bear's Good Intentions' and 'Mo'awiya and Satan' are among the most popular in the entire Masnavi.

The most influential Sufi poem ever written, the six books of the Masnavi are often called 'the Qur'an in Persian'. Self-contained, as well as continuing the journey along the spiritual path, Book Two is here translated into rhyming couplets in the style of Jawid Mojaddedi's prize-winning translation of Book One.

ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.


MTO Shahmaghsoudi ®

The sanctity of the message of Islam and the tradition of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) were kept intact through an unbroken chain of transmission by the great masters of Maktab Tarighat Oveyssi®.

According to Hujwiri, Attar Niyshabpouri, and Sheikh Mohammad Ghader Bagheri, the first recipient of Holy Prophet Mohammad’s (pbuh) Cloak was Oveys Gharani. While Oveys Gharani never actually visited or set eyes on his spiritual teacher Hazrat Mohammad (pbuh), he knew him in his heart. This method of heart to heart cognition is the kind of spiritual relationship that should exist between the seeker and the spiritual teacher. The spiritual teacher or Sufi Master also known as the “Pir”, meaning the “Light of the Path,” illuminates the darkness to help seekers to find the way to their true Self.

At times the Prophet would say of Hazrat Oveys , “I feel the breath of the Merciful, coming to me from Yemen.” In doing so, the Prophet confirmed the method of heart to heart communication through which Hazrat Oveys had received the essence of Islam.

Oveys Gharani has said: “Keep watch over thy heart,” which in Arabic is stated as “alayka bi-ghalbik.”

In the famous book of poetry, Masnavi, by Jalaleddin Rumi, we find the following statement by the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) about Oveys Gharani:

” The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) says that the breeze brings O’men!

The divine perfume from Yemen.

The scent of Ramin comes from Veys

The fragrance of God from Oveys.

Oveys’ heavenly perfume from God,

Overjoyed the heart of the Prophet of God.

Forsaking his mortal being willingly

That earthly (Oveys) become heavenly.” (Rumi, 716)

Hujwiri , Kashf al-Mahjub (Tehran, Mi Kabir Publication, 1957)

Sheikh Farid al-din Attar, Tazkeret al-Ulia (Tehran:Amir Kabir Publications, 1964)

Sheikh Mohammaad Ghadeer Baghiri, Aghtab Oveyssi (Tehran: Amin Pubications, 1973)


JALÁLU'D-DÍN RÚMÍ

"OUR JOURNEY IS TO THE ROSE-GARDEN OF UNION"
JALÁLU'D-DÍN RÚMÍ.

PREFACE

I desire to thank Mr. R. A. Nicholson for his kind and generous permission to use selections from his Dīvāni Shamsi Tabrīz, and also his publishers, the Cambridge Press. I am deeply indebted to Mr. E. H. Whinfield for allowing me to use quotations from his rendering of the Masnavi (Trübner's Oriental Series). I also cordially thank Mr. John Hastie for giving me permission to quote a few passages from the late Rev. Professor Hastie's "Festival of Spring" (James Maclehose and Sons, Glasgow). The poems quoted from this volume are entitled: "Thy Rose," "I saw the Winter weaving," "Love sounds the Music of the Spheres," "The Souls Love-moved," and "The Beloved All in All." All the other translations from the lyrical poetry of Jalálu'd-Dín Rúmí are by Mr. R. A. Nicholson. To these gentlemen, and to those I have left unnamed, I tender my warmest thanks for their help, sympathy, and interest in my attempt to "popularise the wisest of the Persian Súfís."

LONDON ,
January 22, 1907.

CONTENTS

EDITORIAL NOTE

The object of the Editors of this series is a very definite one. They desire above all things that, in their humble way, these books shall be the ambassadors of good-will and understanding between East and West&mdashthe old world of Thought and the new of Action. In this endeavour, and in their own sphere, they are but followers of the highest example in the land. They are confident that a deeper knowledge of the great ideals and lofty philosophy of Oriental thought may help to a revival of that true spirit of Charity which neither despises nor fears the nation of another creed and colour.

L. CRANMER-BYNG.
S. A. KAPADIA.

NORTHBROOK SOCIETY,
21, CROMWELL ROAD,
KENSINGTON, S.W.

INTRODUCTION

I. THE ORIGIN OF SÚFÍISM

Among the Mohammedans Súfíism, or Persian mysticism, is known as tasawwuf. The word Sidi is derived from súf, meaning "wool." When a little Persian sect at the end of the eighth century A.D. broke away from the orthodox Muslim religion, and struck out on an independent path, they ignored costly robes and worldly ostentation, and clad themselves in a white wool garment. Hence they were known as "wool wearers," or Súfís.

Prof. Edward G. Browne [1] gives four theories in regard to the origin of Súfíism, viz.: (1) Esoteric Doctrine of the Prophet.(2) Reaction of the Aryan mind against a Semitic religion. (3) Neo-Platonist influence.(4) Independent origin. Neither of the four theories altogether satisfies the learned professor, and very certain it is that the last-mentioned theory is of very little account. Prof. Browne seems in favour of a "spontaneous growth" existing in various forms, under various names throughout the civilised world but after all this is not very tangible evidence. Moreover, we must bear in mind that the Neo-Platonist philosophers paid a visit to the Persian court in the sixth century A.D. , and founded a school there in the reign of Núshír-wan. It is highly probable, therefore, that these seven philosophers, forced to leave their homes through the tyranny of Justinian, who forbade the teaching of philosophy at Athens, should have had considerable influence upon a few of the more thoughtful Persians. We shall now find that this theory is borne out by internal evidence.

Let us briefly study the tenets of Neo-Platonism. The Neo-Platonists believed in the Supreme Good as the Source of all things. Self-existent, it generated from itself. Creation was the reflection of its own Being. Nature, therefore, was permeated with God. Matter was essentially non-existent, a temporary and ever-moving shadow for the embodiment of the Divine. The Neo-Platonists believed that by ecstasy and contemplation of the All-Good, man would rise to that Source from whence he came. These points bear directly upon the Súfí teaching. They form a broad outline of the tenets of Súfíism. The Súfís, from temperamental and other causes, elaborated these ideas, gave them a rich and beautiful setting, and, what is all-important, built about them one of the most interesting phases of mystical poetry the world has ever known, and this particular phase may be said to date from the twelfth century A.D.

Thus, I think, it will be readily admitted that the Súfís certainly owed something to the Neo-Platonists. The cry for the Beloved was in their hearts before the Greek philosophers came but Neo-Platonism appealed to their Oriental minds. It was a stepping-stone across the river of their particular spiritual tendencies, and they trod thereon, and proceeded to lay down other stones across the stream. I have pointed out the similarities between this particular Greek and Persian belief. There was, however, one very important difference. The Neo-Platonist's conception of God was purely abstract, the Súfí's essentially personal, as far as the early Súfís were concerned. We shall consider other influences which were brought to bear upon Súfíism a little later on. There is a very great difference between the early Súfíism and the elaborate additions that followed as an evolutionary matter of course.

In brief, then, Neo-Platonism was the doctrine of Ecstasy. A quotation from the letter of Plotinus to Flaccus on Ecstasy will still further show the similarities between this Greek and Persian teaching:

"The wise man recognises the idea of the Good within him. This he develops by withdrawal into the Holy Place of his own soul. He who does not understand how the soul contains the Beautiful within itself, seeks to realise beauty without, by laborious production. His aim should rather be to concentrate and simplify, and so to expand his being instead of going out into the Manifold, to forsake it for the One, and so to float upwards towards the Divine Fount of Being whose stream flows within him."

This is Súfíism in prose. The Súfí turned the same conception into poetry.

II. THE EARLY SÚFÍS.

Abú Hashím (ob. 150 A.H. ) was the first to bear the name of Súfí, while Dhu'l-Nún-al-Misri (245 A.H. ) may be said to have given Súfíism its permanent shape. Rābi'a, of Basra, was the first woman to join the sect, and her saintliness and wise sayings have been preserved by Farídu'd-Dín 'Attár. One day a great sickness fell upon Rabi'a, and on being asked the reason for it she replied: "I dwelt upon the joys of Paradise and therefore my Beloved has chastened me."

Rābi'a did not believe in earthly marriage. Her remark on the subject is given as follows: "The bonds of wedlock have descended upon me. I am not my own, but my Lord's, and must not be unfaithful to Him." 'Attár also informs us that when Rābi'a was asked if she hated the devil, she replied: "My love to God leaves me no time to hate him." Rābi'a was a woman of much independence of thought, ethical rather than metaphysical in her remarks, and strongly opposed to outward ceremonials. She is said to have died at Jerusalem, 753 A.D. It was at Ramla, in Palestine, that a Christian nobleman built a convent (Khāngāh) for the Súfís. Thus in the early days the sect defied their Prophet's condemnation of monkery by building an abode for members of the order. The Súfís were strongly opposed to the idea of free-will or distinct and self-existent personality apart from the Beloved. The orthodox Muslim's idea was precisely the reverse. The Súfís have always made the Koran their text-book. With infinite licence they ingeniously quote therefrom, and still more ingeniously add their own explanations when necessary. No doubt there were political reasons for adopting this method of concealing heterodox ideas under the cloak of orthodoxy. We shall see, however, as the sect grew and still further broadened its views, that these clever compromises did not prevent the appearance of martyrs among their number in the future.

By the end of the second century of the Hijira the Súfís were a much-respected religious order. In the following century Quietism had not only changed to Pantheism, but Pantheism had kindled a belief that Beloved and lover were identical. The step was inevitable and at this juncture it was that Súfíism became essentially mystical, and it became more mystical as years advanced. About this time, viz., the beginning of the third century A.H. , we come across two interesting Súfís who seem to have been the prime movers in this new development, by name Bayázíd and Mansur al-Halláj.

Concerning the saint Bayázíd an interesting story is told in the Fourth Book of the Masnavi. The saint surprised his disciples one day by saying: "Lo, I myself am God Almighty. There is no God beside me worship me!" The disciples, thinking their Master was beside himself, told him, when the strange ecstasy had passed, what he had said. Bayázíd promptly replied: "If I do so again straightway slay me!" His disciples accordingly sharpened their knives. Once more Bayázíd cried out: "Within my vesture is naught but God, whether you seek Him on earth or heaven." The disciples, horror-struck at his remarks, straightway plunged their knives into Bayázíd's body. But their blades were turned back against their own throats, so that they died. He explained to the few disciples, who had not struck him, that the ecstasy he had been experiencing annihilated self, "His form is vanished, he is a mere mirror." The disciples who had struck him saw their own faces in that mirror and so wounded themselves, and not Bayázíd, whose soul had left the mirror of his body and was one with the Beloved.

Perhaps the life of Mansur al-Halláj is even more interesting. Whether he was a mere adventurer or genuine exponent of Súfíism is still open to controversy among modern Súfís. It will be perfectly safe to describe him as either a saint or a vagabond. He was possibly both extremes to suit the necessities of a very exciting and eventful career. He was born in the close of the ninth century A.D. , and was said to perform many miracles, such as raising the dead to life, and drawing gold and flowers from the air. According to his own belief he could write verses equal to those of the Koran. He went one better than the "superman" theory, however, and called himself God, and his disciples after the various prophets. Akbar was called God, but deification in this case did not sound from his own trumpet it sounded from the trumpet of an enthusiastic poet: "See Akbar and you see God." Al-Halláj visited India for the purpose of studying magic, and there saw the celebrated Rope Trick, on that occasion performed by a woman, a point of considerable interest. [2] This mystic-adventurer wrote forty-six books, and certainly gained considerable influence over the lower classes by his many signs and wonders. He is said to have disputed the necessity of making a pilgrimage to Mecca by stating that by occult practices it could be performed equally well in any room. On a certain occasion, however, we cannot help but admire Al-Halláj's wit and aptitude. One day he stretched forth an empty hand and produced from the air an apple, which he asserted he had plucked from Paradise. One of his witnesses disputed his assertion, because this particular apple was maggot-eaten, and therefore not of Divine origin. Al-Halláj at once replied: "It is because it bath come forth from the Mansion of Eternity to the Abode of Decay: therefore to its heart hath corruption found its way!"

Al-Halláj, on account of his various heretical teachings, was imprisoned and subjected to all manner of cruelties. Bravely he went forth to the place of crucifixion. For four days he was nailed on a cross on both sides of the Tigris. From these tortures he was finally released. Ten years later he was executed, telling his disciples he would return to them in thirty days, and exultantly reciting poetry, he cried: "From His own cup He bade me sup, for such is hospitality!" A comment of his on Súfíism&mdasha very ironical one&mdashwas: "That which is mine, for by God I never distinguished for a moment between pleasure and pain!" Yet another characteristic saying of his was: "The way to God is two steps: one step out of this world and one step out of the next world, and lo! you are there with the Lord!" Whatever were the faults of Al-Halláj, and they were many, at least it may be said of him that he was a brave man. With all his fanaticism, his absurd indiscretion and love of conjuring, he left much behind of permanent value to the Súfís. The Government, in those days, did all in its power to restrain the publicity of his books but a light that was never for a moment set under a bushel cannot be hid the very attempt to obliterate it is in itself the cause for a keener and more persistent search.

In the fifth century of the Hijira we may note Abu-l-Khair as the first to give Súfíism politic significance, and Imān Ghazālī as the first to give it a metaphysical basis. At this time we find in Súfí books many terms borrowed from the Neo-Platonists. Books on ethics, as well as poetry, now became impregnated with Súfí ideas.

III. THE NATURE OF SÚFÍISM

The Súfís are folk who have preferred God to everything, so that God has preferred them to everything.&mdash DHU'L-NUN . [3]

In the Islám faith there are eight Paradises arranged one within the other in ascending stages. The highest is called "The Garden of Eden." All are lovely gardens full of luxuriant flowers and trees, amid which gleam the domes and minarets of gorgeous palaces, rich with precious stones, where the departed are feasted and entertained by beautiful houris. All the Paradises are watered by rivers, such as the Kevser, the Tesním, and the Selsebíl. The great Tūba tree grows in the highest Paradise its branches fall into the seven other gardens. [4] This brief description will be sufficient to show the nature of the Muslim heaven. That it was a glorified creation of the earth in eight degrees is evident. It was sensuous rather than metaphysical. The five worlds of the Súfís are:

1. The "Plane of the Absolute Invisible."
2. The "Relatively Invisible."
3. The "World of Similitudes."
4. The "Visible World" (or the plane of "Form, Generation and Corruption").
5. The "World of Man."

These Five Planes are often regarded as Three: the "Invisible," the "Intermediate," and the "Visible," or yet again as simply the "Visible" and "Invisible." Above the "Plane of the Absolute Invisible" is an infinity which we might, perhaps, compare with Dante's "Spaceless Empyrean." The Súfís regarded the existence of the soul as pre-natal. Moreover that the full perception of Earthly Beauty was the remembrance of that Supreme Beauty in the Spiritual world. The body was the veil but by ecstasy (Hál) the soul could behold the Divine Mysteries. As Avicenna, in his poem on the soul, has written:

Lo, it was hurled
Midst the sign-posts and ruined abodes of this desolate world.
It weeps, when it thinks of its home and the peace it possessed,
With tears welling forth from its eyes without pausing or rest,
And with plaintive mourning it broodeth like one bereft
O'er such trace of its home as the fourfold winds have left.

Creation was regarded as the output of the All-Beautiful. The visible world and all therein was a reflection of the Divine, an ever-changing scene full of the Spirit of God. The following beautiful poem of Jámí, from Yúsuf-u-Zulaykhá, will illustrate the Súfí's conception of the Beloved and His significance and relationship to His world of lovers:

No mirror to reflect Its loveliness,
Nor comb to touch Its locks the morning breeze
Ne'er stirred Its tresses no collyrium
Lent lustre to Its eyes no rosy cheeks
O'ershadowed by dark curls like hyacinth,
Nor peach-like down were there.
To Itself it sang of love
In wordless measure. By Itself it cast
The die of love.
One gleam fell from It on the Universe
And on the angels, and this single ray
Dazzled the angels, till their senses whirled
Like the revolving sky. In diverse forms
Each mirror showed it forth, and everywhere
Its praise was chanted in new harmonies.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
The spirits who explore the depths
Of boundless seas, wherein the heavens swim
Like some small boat, cried with one mighty voice,
"Praise to the Lord of all the universe!"
His beauty everywhere doth show itself,
And through the forms of earthly beauties shines
Obscured as through a veil.
Where'er thou seest a veil,
Beneath that veil He hides. Whatever heart
Doth yield to love, He charms it. In His love
The heart hath life. Longing for Him, the soul
Hath victory. [5]

Man was, therefore, a part of God, because he was a fragment of the Whole or, better still, he was a divine emanation. [6] The Súfí recognised this fact, and his supreme desire was to be reunited with the Beloved. His difficulty, however, was to bear in mind that his worship should ever be of God, and not of God's many beautiful forms. Love came into his heart, and he endeavoured to recognise that earthly objects, however dear and beautiful they might be, were but lanterns where God's Light shone through. Here it must be readily admitted that Súfíism often fails. The Súfí poets were much given to excessive laudations of physical beauty, and we often find, with all the toleration and ingenuity we can bring to bear, that some of Háfiz's lines are no more spiritual than Anacreon's, to whom he has been compared. We have a number of Súfí words with a strictly Súfí meaning but it would not be wise to strain the analogy of earthly love too far and say that everything that Háfiz wrote was spiritual. The Súfí poets, for the most part, wrote about the Love of God in the terms applied to their beautiful women, for the simple reason that no one can write the celestial language and be understood at the same time. Is it to be wondered at that the Súfís, still remembering their old love-songs, their old earthly delights in women dear to them, should find it difficult not to apply such names, such ideas even in their love of the One Beloved? Take those expressions literally and many of them are sensuous, but consider them as brave, strong strivings, fraught with much spiritual fervour, after God, and you at once annihilate prejudice and come very near understanding the meaning of Súfíism. We need not fly to Mrs. Grundy and seek shelter under her hypocritical wing when some really devout and sincere Súfí calls God "the Eternal Darling" or sings about the Beloved's curls. In studying Súfíism from Súfí poetry we must always remember that Eastern poetry is essentially erotic in expression, but just as essentially symbolic in meaning. We must also bear in mind&mdashand this point must have had its influence upon Súfíism&mdashthat the Muslim's reward for having lived a good life, according to the teaching of Mohammed, was that he should enjoy an eternal liaison with lovely houris.

It may be questioned that if the earthly object of Love was a mere passing shadow of God, the man who loved that object was equally insignificant. And again, how can God be the All-One when, according to the Súfí thesis, He divided Himself into creation? The part is not equal to the whole. These questions are easily answered. The stars shine in the sky, and on the bosom of the sea without diminution. Let the sea pass away, and the star-shadows pass away too but the stars are still there. So when the world shall pass away it will only be the fading of innumerable shadows we call Humanity. God will still be there, and we shall still be there because we came alone from Him. There was a Voice that sounded in men and women, in mountains and in seas, in the beasts of the jungle and the swinging of the stars. It was the Voice of Love, the great beckoning in the Hereafter to which all things must go. That Voice to the Súfí was God calling His lovers into one chamber, one mighty love-feast. Jámí has expressed the finality of Love in the following lines:

Gaze, till Gazing out of Gazing
Grew to BEING Her I gaze on,
She and I no more, but in One
Undivided Being blended.
All that is not One must ever
Suffer with the Wound of Absence
And whoever in Love's City
Enters, finds but Room for One,
And but in ONENESS Union.

The Rev. Professor W. R. Inge, in Christian Mysticism, has brought a good deal of adverse criticism to bear upon Súfíism. He remarks: "The Súfís, or Mohammedan Mystics, use erotic language very freely, and appear, like true Asiatics, to have attempted to give a sacramental or symbolic character to the indulgence of their passions." The same writer accuses Emerson of "playing with pantheistic Mysticism of the Oriental type," and goes on to compare him with the Persian Súfís on account of his self-deification. This critic, in his desire to defame the Súfís, states that they are among the most shocking and blasphemous of the mystics, because they believe that state is present with them even in their earthly life. This, however, is no teaching of the Súfís, and, rightly considered, we cannot even except the sayings of Bayázíd already referred to, because here he undoubtedly denies all claim to human personality, admitting God only. Self-deification is no teaching of the Súfís. As the Buddhist's belief in Nirvana was a state only to be reached by degrees, after much striving and severe discipline, so was the fusion of the Beloved and His lover a belief and a beautiful hope far out on the spiritual horizon. Hadj Khan, in his interesting book With the Pilgrims to Mecca, briefly touches upon this sect and mentions "seven stages" in the spiritual growth of the Súfí, and not an arrogant proclamation of Deity and man being coequal in the earthly existence. The gradually ascending scale of the Súfí's heaven is another point in favour of this argument. "For the love that thou would'st find demands the sacrifice of self to the end that the heart may be filled with the passion to stand within the Holy of Holies, in which alone the mysteries of the True Beloved can be revealed unto thee." The average Súfí was a poet. All that was beautiful was God to him. He tried to be nearer the Beautiful every day, and thus his soul swept on from flower to flower, higher and higher, until he was absorbed into the Divine.

We have now seen that Súfíism is essentially a religion of Love without a creed or dogma. No merciless hells leap up in the Súfí's beliefs. He has no one way theory for the Life beyond: "The ways of God are as the number of the souls of men." There is splendid, magnificent broad-mindedness in this Súfí remark. This unsectarian teaching should be applied to every religion. It would tend to sweeten and deepen the thoughts of men, who would forget the petty non-essentials of creeds and dogmas, lost in the perception of the All-Beautiful.

IV. THE INFLUENCE OF SÚFÍISM

This love here forms the centre which expands on all sides and into all regions.&mdash HEGEL .

Although Jalálu'd-Dín Rúmí lived for fifty years in a Turkish city he scarcely ever used any Turkish words but nevertheless his influence on Turkish poetry was very considerable. The Turkish poets of that day poured forth innumerable "spiritual couplets" of a mystical nature. Indeed nearly all the Ottoman poets were either Súfís or men who wrote after the manner of the Persian Súfís. Jalál's son, Sultan Valad, wrote in Turkish the following concerning his father:

Wot ye well Mevláná is of saints the Pole
Whatsoever thing he sayeth, do in whole.
All his words are mercies from the Heavenly King
Such that blind folks' eyes were opened, did they sing.

The Súfí influence on Turkish poetry, many years after Jalál's death, gradually weakened as time went on, and their poetry became less mystical. The French were probably responsible for this change to a certain extent.

Then, again, Súfíism influenced the poetry of India but in this case there was influence on both sides, and the Súfís probably borrowed some of the Buddhistic ideas, especially in regard to their later conception of Divine absorption. The following remark of Abú Bahu al-Shiblí certainly points to the belief that the Súfís inculcated certain ideas from the Vedanta Philosophy:&mdash"Tasawwuf is control of the faculties and observance of the breaths."

Súfí poetry has greatly influenced Western thought. Many of the German mystics wrote as the Súfí poets had written before them. Particularly might be mentioned Eckhart, Tauler and Suso. Concerning the last mentioned I may quote the following passage to demonstrate my meaning: "Earthly friends must needs endure to be distinct and separate from those whom they love but Thou, O fathomless sweetness of all true love, meltest into the heart of Thy beloved, and pourest Thyself fully into the essence of his soul, that nothing of Thee remains outside, but Thou art joined and united most lovingly with Thy beloved." There was rapturous language both with the Persian and German mystics. The great difference between them was that the German mystics, for the most part, were ascetics, the Persians were not. Then again in the nineteenth century Hegel was loud in his praise of Jalálu'd-Dín Rúmí, calling him a great thinker as well as a great poet, but somehow he seems to put Jalál's Pantheism first, his Mysticism second. Surely this was putting the cart before the horse?

To trace the scope of the influence of Súfí thought in England would be extremely interesting, but the limits of this little book will not admit of our doing so. The influence was at first among the few but optimistic lovers of the East believe that Oriental thought is daily becoming of more interest to Western minds. The student knows that Edward FitzGerald's rendering of Omar Khayyám, was anything but a faithful translation that FitzGerald shook up Omar's words like so many dice and set them to the music of wine, roses, and pessimism. The Omar Khayyám Club read FitzGerald, but not Omar Khayyám, and in consequence they have fallen into the error of associating Omar with Bacchus. But, nevertheless, we must be grateful to FitzGerald. He has given us a great poem, and stirred, let us hope, many of his countless readers to a more faithful study of Persian poetry. The indefatigable Dr. Johnson has written the following on the Persian poet, who is the subject of our present volume: "He makes plain to the Pilgrim the secrets of the Way of Unity, and unveils the Mysteries of the Path of Eternal Truth." Concerning our modern poets I have quoted elsewhere a few lines of Mr. Arthur Symons on a dancing dervish. Many of the late Thomas Lake Harris's poems are of a Súfí nature. In Mr. Stephen Phillip's beautiful poem "Marpessa," the following lines are full of Sidi mysticism:

For they,
Seeking that perfect face beyond the world,
Approach in vision earthly semblances,
And touch, and at the shadows flee away.

It is interesting to note that at least one celebrated Englishman adopted the Súfí teaching. I refer to Sir Richard Burton. [7] The Súfís believed heart and soul in the beautiful lines of Cameons, the poet for whom Burton had so great an affection:

Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none but self expect applause.
He noblest lives and noblest dies who makes and keeps his self-made laws.
All other life is living death, a world where none but phantoms dwell
A breath, a wind, a sound, a voice, a tinkling of the camel-bell.

V. ANALYSIS OF THE RELIGION OF LOVE

Put away the tale of love that travellers tell
Do thou serve God with all thy might.
JALÁLU'D-DÍN RÚMÍ.

Súfíism, then, is the religion of Love. Lafcadio Hearn tells us, in his inimitable way, that earthly love is brought about by the memories of innumerable loves in the past, a host of the phantoms of you seeking in your momentary ego the joy of Love over again. Schopenhauer, with much pride, quotes Rochefoucauld as having said that "love may be compared to a ghost since it is something we talk about but have never seen." Precisely but this is no antagonistic statement, as Schopenhauer supposed. Rather than belittling the beauty of Love, it is an unconscious defence of a very great truth. Love can only be compared with Love. There is nothing else to compare it with. No one has seen Love, because no one has seen God. A little child plays at funerals and tenderly buries a dead butterfly, not because it understands the mystery of Death, but because Love prompted the action. And so we love without knowing the why and the wherefore. Scientists have already proved that first love is not controlled by either of the individuals loving that it is but the expression of thousands of tendencies in past lives. That Love can be ever personal, ever limited to the individual, is unthinkable. We must recognise some day that those countless tendencies, those strivings after men and women seeming to hold our souls' affinities, were but the momentary finding of God in His creatures. We do not love a woman merely because she is pretty, possesses a pleasing mannerism. We love her because, in an indescribable way, she sings a song we alone can fully understand, a voice that lifts up our soul and makes it strong. We follow that Invisible Figure from land to land, from heart to heart, from Death into Life, on and on. When Love loves Love for its own sake, when the self is dead, we shall meet Him. We shall find the Beloved to be the Perfection, the realisation of that strong desire that made us lose ourselves in others. The more we lose ourselves in God the more we find Him. Men and women love and die. But Love is a Divine Essence working through and through innumerable lives for its own eternal glory. Personality is limited only to the finite world&mdashperhaps a phase or two beyond the grave. Even that is the sum-total of countless so-called personalities in the past. We love instinctively. If it was wholly physical then it dies with the death of the object. If it was infinitely more than that, if it was the love of Goodness and Purity and the Beautiful it lives on for ever. But these things live not eternally in humanity. They are parts of that all-pervading Essence&mdashthe Love Divine. Love God's light in men and women, and not the lanterns through which It shines, for human bodies must turn to dust human memories, human desires, fade away. But the love of the All-Good, All-Beautiful remains, and when such is found in earthly love it is God finding Himself in you, and you in Him. That is the supreme teaching of Súfíism, the religion of Love.

[1] A Literary History of Persia, vol. i.

[2] "Among the Adepts and Mystics of Hindostam." The Occult Review, December, 1905.

[3] For further extracts from Súfí writers see A Historical Enquiry concerning the Origin and Development of Súfíism, By R. A. Nicholson. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, March, 1906.


Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts

    Folk and Mythology Electronic Texts, page 2.

    . The aliens in these legends are not men from outer space but the underground folk: fairies, trolls, elves, and the like.
    1. The Recovered Bride (Ireland).
    2. Taken by the Good People (Ireland).
    3. Twenty Years with the Good People (Ireland).
    4. Ethna the Bride (Ireland).
    5. Jamie Freel and the Young Lady (Ireland).
    6. Ned the Jockey (Wales).
    7. The Old Man and the Fairies (Wales).
    8. A Visit to Fairyland (Wales).
    9. Four Years in Faery (Isle of Man).
    10. The Lost Wife of Ballaleece (Isle of Man).
    11. On Fairies (England).
    12. The Lost Child (England).
    13. The Fairies' Hill (Scotland).
    14. The Stolen Lady (Scotland).
    15. Touching the Elements (Shetland Islands).
    16. The Aged Bride (Denmark).
    17. A Smith Rescues a Captured Woman from a Troll (Denmark).
    18. The Sea Nymph (Sweden).
  1. The Three Advices (Ireland).
  2. The Three Advices Which the King with the Red Soles Gave to His Son (Ireland).
  3. The Highlander Takes Three Advices from the English Farmer (Scotland).
  4. The Three Admonitions (Italy).
  5. The Prince Who Acquired Wisdom (India).
    . Joseph Jacobs' classic retelling of 82 fables and included in the Harvard Classics, vol. 17, part 1. This site is part of Great Books Online: bartleby.com. , edited by John R. Long. . A selection of fables depicting the relationship between children and adults.
  1. Old Folks in Aesop's Fables.
  1. The Broken Pot (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Poor Man and the Flask of Oil (India, Bidpai).
  3. The Story of the Devotee Who Spilt the Jar of Honey and Oil (India / Persia).
  4. What Happened to the Ascetic When He Lost His Honey and Oil (Kalilah and Dimnah).
  5. The Daydreamer (India, Cecil Henry Bompas).
  6. Sheik Chilli (India, Alice Elizabeth Dracott).
  7. The Fakir and His Jar of Butter (1001 Nights).
  8. The Barber's Tale of His Fifth Brother (1001 Nights).
  9. Day-Dreaming (1001 Nights, retold by Joseph Jacobs).
  10. The Milkmaid and Her Pail (Aesop).
  11. Story of an Old Woman, Carrying Milk to Market in an Earthen Vessel (France, Jacques de Vitry).
  12. What Happened to a Woman Called Truhana (Spain, Prince Don Juan Manuel).
  13. The Dairywoman and the Pot of Milk (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  14. Lazy Heinz (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  15. Lean Lisa (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  16. Buttermilk Jack (England, Thomas Hughes).
  17. The Lad and the Fox (Sweden, Gabriel Djurklou).
  18. The Peasant and the Cucumbers (Russia, Leo Tolstoy).
  19. The Milkmaid and Her Bucket (USA, Ambrose Bierce).
  20. The $30,000 Bequest (USA, Mark Twain).
  1. The Forty Thieves (retold by Andrew Lang).
  2. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (translated by Richard F. Burton).

from the Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus. This account, written about 1185 but based on older oral tradition, describes the same players and events that were immortalized by William Shakespeare in his The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, written about 1602.

  1. Hans Christian Andersen: Fairy Tales and Stories. An excellent home page featuring Denmark's most famous writer. Included here are a chronological listing of Andersen's folk-like fairy tales, electronic texts of most stories, and links to additional information.
  2. The H. C. Andersen Home Page. Links to Andersen's works in Danish. This site is sponsored by the Danish Royal Library. , a treasure trove of information (in Danish and in English) from the H. C. Andersen Center in Odense, Denmark.
  1. Androcles (Aesop).
  2. The Slave and the Lion (Aesop).
  3. Androcles and the Lion (Joseph Jacobs).
  4. The Lion and the Saint [Saint Jerome] (Andrew Lang).
  5. Of the Remembrance of Benefits (Gesta Romanorum).
  6. The Lion and the Thorn (Ambrose Bierce).
  1. Chonguita the Monkey Wife (Philippines).
  2. The Dog Bride (India).
  3. The Cat Who Became a Queen (India).
  4. The Mouse Maiden (Sri Lanka).
  5. The Frog's Skin (Georgia).
  6. The Tsarevna Frog (Russia).
  7. The Frog (Austria/Italy).
  8. The Frog's Bridegroom (Germany).
  9. Doll i' the Grass (Norway).
  10. The She-Wolf (Croatia).
  11. Links to additional tales of type 402.
  1. The Bear Who Married a Woman (Tsimshian).
  2. The Girl Who Married the Crow (Thompson [Ntlakyapamuk]).
  3. The Woman Who Became a Horse (Thompson [Ntlakyapamuk]).
  4. The Woman Who Became a Horse (Skidi Pawnee).
  5. The Bear Woman (Okanagon).
  6. The Fish Man (Salish).
  7. The Man Who Married a Bear (Nez Percé).
  8. Of the Woman Who Loved a Serpent Who Lived in a Lake (Passamaquoddy).
  1. The Fable of the Ant and of the Sygalle [Cigala, Grasshopper] (Aesop, Caxton, 1484).
  2. An Ant and a Grasshopper (Anianus, L'Estrange, 1692).
  3. An Ant Formerly a Man (Aesop, L'Estrange, 1692).
  4. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Croxall, 1775).
  5. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Bewick, 1818).
  6. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, James, 1848).
  7. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Jacobs, 1894).
  8. The Grasshopper and the Ants (Aesop, Jones, 1912).
  9. The Grasshopper and the Ant (La Fontaine, 1668).
  10. The Grasshopper and the Ant (Ambrose Bierce, 1899).
  11. The Ants and the Grasshopper (Ambrose Bierce, 1899).
  12. The Story of the Little Red Hen (USA, 1874).
  1. The Jews' Stone (Austria).
  2. The Girl Who Was Killed by Jews (Germany).
  3. Pfefferkorn the Jew at Halle (Germany).
  4. The Expulsion of the Jews from Prussia (Germany).
  5. The Bloody Children of the Jews (Germany).
  6. The Imprisoned Jew at Magdeburg (Germany).
  7. The Chapel of the Holy Body at Magdeburg (Germany).
  8. The Lost Jew (Germany).
  9. The Story of Judas (Italy).
  10. Malchus at the Column (Italy).
  11. Buttadeu (Sicily).
  12. The Eternal Jew on the Matterhorn (Switzerland).
  13. The Jew in the Thorns (Germany).
  1. Arthur's Conception and Birth.
  2. Arthur Is Chosen King.
  3. Arthur Gets the Sword Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake.
  4. Arthur Marries Guinevere.
  5. Arthur Kills a Giant at Mont-Saint-Michel.
  6. Mordred's Treachery.
  7. Arthur's Death.
  • Bald Stories: Folktales about Hairless Men.
    1. A Man and Two Wives (Aesop -- L'Estrange, type 1394).
    2. The Man and His Two Wives (Aesop -- Jacobs, type 1394).
    3. The Middle-Aged Man between Two Ages and His Two Mistresses (Jean de La Fontaine, type 1394).
    4. A Horse-Man's Wig Blown Off (Avianus).
    5. The Bald Man and the Fly (Aesop, type 1586).
    6. The Pedant, the Bald Man, and the Barber (Europe, type 1284).
    7. The Foolish Bald Man and the Fool Who Pelted Him (India).
    8. The Bald Man and the Hair-Restorer (India).
    9. How Saint Peter Lost His Hair (Germany, type 774J).
    10. Old Hanrahan (Ireland).
    11. How Come Mr. Buzzard to Have a Bald Head (African-American).
  1. Peer Gynt and the Trolls (Norway).
  2. The Cat on the Dovrefjell (Norway).
  3. The Cat of Norrhult (Sweden).
  4. The Troll and the Bear (Denmark).
  5. The Kobold and the Polar Bear (Germany).
  6. The Cat Mill (Germany).
  7. The Water Nix in the Oil Mill near Frauendorf (Germany).
  8. The Water-Man (Moravia).
  9. Kelpie and the Boar (Scotland).
  1. Bearskin (Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, Germany).
  2. Bearskin (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Germany).
  3. The Devil as Partner (Switzerland).
  4. Hell's Gatekeeper (Austria).
  5. Never-Wash (Russia).
  6. Don Giovanni de la Fortuna (Sicily).
  7. The Reward of Kindness (Philippines).
  8. The King's Tabernacle (Wales).

    . Folktales of type 207C, in which a serpent or an abandoned old horse gains justice by tugging on a bell rope.
    1. Of the Vicissitude of Everything Good, and Especially of a Right Justice (Gesta Romanorum).
    2. The Emperor Charlemagne and the Serpent (Switzerland).
    3. The Bell of Atri (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Tales of a Wayside Inn).
    4. The Dumb Plaintiff (Germany).

  1. Bomere Pool (1) (Shropshire).
  2. Bomere Pool (2) (Shropshire).
  3. Kentsham Bell (Herefordshire).
  4. The Mermaid of Marden (Herefordshire).
  5. The Bells of Forrabury Church (Cornwall).
  6. The Bosham Bell (Sussex).
  7. The Whitby Abbey Bells (Yorkshire).
  8. Whitby: Submarine Bells (Yorkshire).
  9. The Buried Chime (Yorkshire).
  10. A Legend of Semewater (Yorkshire).
  11. Simmerwater [Semerwater] (Yorkshire).
  12. The Bells of Brinkburn (1) (Northumberland).
  13. The Bells of Brinkburn (2) (Northumberland).
  14. Rostherne Mere (Cheshire).
  15. A Legend of Rostherne Mere (Cheshire).

, a classic trickster tale of type 1535 from Norway.

  1. The Swineherd Who Married a Princess (Europe).
  2. The Princess's Birthmarks (Denmark).
  3. The Pig-Boy and the Princess (Germany).
  4. The Nobleman's Daughter and the Shepherd (Germany).
  5. Three Golden Hairs (Wendish).
  6. The Emperor's Daughter and the Swineherd (Slavic).
  7. The Shepherd and the King's Daughter (Serbia).
  8. The Enchanted Lambs (Russia).
  9. The Youngest Prince and the Youngest Princess (Hungary).
  10. The Rivals (Bukovina).
  11. The Pearl Queen (Germany).
  12. The Swineherd (Hans Christian Andersen).
  13. The Clever Little Tailor (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  1. The Blind Men and the Elephant (The Udāna).
  2. On the Blind Men and the Affair of the Elephant (Sanai, The Enclosed Garden of the Truth).
  3. All Faiths Lead to God: Four Blind Men and an Elephant (Ramakrishna)
  4. The Blind Men and the Elephant: A Hindoo Fable (John Godfrey Saxe).
  5. The King and the Elephants (Leo Tolstoy).

, a European folktale of type 303.

  1. The Blue Light (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. The Deserter with the Tinderbox (Austria, J. R. Bünker).
  3. The Iron Man (Germany, August Ey).
  4. The Three Dogs (Germany, Georg Schambach and Wilhelm Müller).
  5. The Soldier and the Tinderbox (Germany, Wilhelm Busch).
  6. The Giants and the Tinderbox (Germany, Heinrich Pröhle).
  7. The Transverse Flute (Germany, Carl and Theodor Colshorn).
  8. The Tinderbox (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  9. Lars, My Lad! (Sweden, G. Djurklo).
  10. Sir Buzz (India, Flora Annie Steel).
  1. Bluebeard (France, Charles Perrault).
  2. King Bluebeard (Germany).
  3. Don Firriulieddu (Italy).
  4. The Little Boy and His Dogs (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  5. Blue-Beard (North Carolina, USA).
  6. The Chosen Suitor (Antigua, British West Indies).
  7. The Brahman Girl That Married a Tiger (India).

. A folktale from Norway, collected in the mid nineteenth century by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. The magic belt in this tale is reminiscent of the Norse god Thor's belt of strength as described in The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson.

  1. The Decameron Web. Sponsored by the Italian Studies Department at Brown University. . Tales of type 1678. . Tales of type 1423.
  2. The Three-Ring Parable. Tales of type 920E. (type 887).
  1. Dictionary Definitions.
  2. Imaginary Monsters (England).
  3. Goblin Names (England).
  4. Peg Powler (England).
  5. The Bogey Man (England).
  6. The Fairies (Ireland).
  7. A Rhyme We Say While Skipping (Ireland).
  8. The Night Huntsman (Germany).
  9. The Rye-Mother (Germany).
  10. Frau Trude (Germany).
  11. Mother Hinne's Parlor (Germany).
  12. Frightening Children (Germany).
  13. Butzemann (Germany).
  14. The Devil Takes a Child (Austria).
  15. The Hard-Hearted Father (Austria).
  1. Filippo Balducci and His Son (abstracted from The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio).
  2. A Young Monk Wanted to Have a Goose (Germany).
  3. An Inexperienced Youth (Italy, The Facetiæ of Poggio).
  1. The Historic Fart (1001 Nights).
  2. The Hodja as Envoy to the Kurds (Turkey).
  3. How Till Eulenspiegel Became a Furrier's Apprentice (Germany).
  4. Till Eulenspiegel and the Innkeeper at Cologne (Germany).
  1. The Bremen Town Musicians (Germany).
  2. The Robber and the Farm Animals (Germany/Switzerland).
  3. The Sheep and the Pig Who Set Up House (Norway).
  4. The Animals and the Devil (Finland).
  5. The Choristers of St. Gudule (Flanders).
  6. The Story of the White Pet (Scotland).
  7. The Bull, the Tup, the Cock, and the Steg (England).
  8. Jack and His Comrades (Ireland).
  9. How Jack Went to Seek His Fortune, version 1 (USA).
  10. How Jack Went to Seek His Fortune, version 2 (USA).
  11. The Dog, the Cat, the Ass, and the Cock (USA).
  12. Benibaire (Spain).
  13. The World's Reward (South Africa).
  1. The Hurds (type 1451, Germany).
  2. Choosing a Bride (type 1452, Germany).
  3. The Cheese Test (type 1452, Switzerland).
  4. The Storehouse Key in the Distaff (type 1453, Norway).
  5. The Suitor (types 1450, 1453, and 1457 Denmark).

The Blood Brothers, a European folktale of type 303.

  1. The Seven Doves (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  2. The Curse of the Seven Children (Italy).
  3. The Bewitched Brothers (Romania).
  4. The Twelve Brothers (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. The Seven Ravens (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  6. The Six Swans (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  7. The Twelve Wild Ducks (Norway, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe).
  8. The Wild Swans (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  9. The Little Sister: The Story of Suyettar and the Nine Brothers (Finland).
  10. The Twelve Wild Geese (Ireland).
  11. The Sister and Her Seven Brothers (Basque).
  12. Udea and Her Seven Brothers (Libya).
    . Scriptures and folktales.
    1. Cain and Abel (Genesis).
    2. The Story of the Two Sons of Adam (The Koran).
    3. Cain and Abel (Jewish Legend).
    4. Kabil and Habil (Palestine).
    5. Cain and Abel (Turkey).
    6. Cain and Abel (Turkey [Armenian]).
    7. Abel and Cain (Italy).
    8. The First Grave (Poland).
    9. The Treasures of Cain (Romania).
  1. Cat and Mouse in Partnership (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm), type 15.
  2. Mouse and Mouser (England), type 111.
  3. Belling the Cat (Aesop), type 110.
  4. The Cat and the Mice (Aesop), type 113*.
  5. The Hypocritical Cat (Tibet), type 113B.
  6. The Cat and the Mice (Tibet), type 113B.
  7. The Cat as Holy Man (Palestine), type 113B.
  8. The Town Mouse and the Field Mouse (Romania), types 112 and 113B.
  9. The Dog, the Cat, and the Mouse (Romania), type 200.
  10. The Cat and the Mouse (England), type 2034.
  11. Cat and Mouse (Germany), type 2034.
  12. Why the Cat Kills Rats (Nigeria).

, a folktale from Italy of type 333A about a careless girl who is eaten up by a witch.

  1. Little Louse and Little Flea (Germany).
  2. Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse (England).
  3. The Cock Who Fell into the Brewing Vat (Norway).
  4. The Cat and the Mouse (Italy).
  5. The Death and Burial of Poor Hen-Sparrow (Pakistan).
  1. The Pancake (Norway).
  2. The Runaway Pancake (Germany).
  3. The Thick, Fat Pancake (Germany).
  4. Dathera Dad (England).
  5. The Wonderful Cake (Ireland).
  6. The Wee Bunnock (Scotland [Ayrshire]).
  7. The Wee Bannock (Scotland [Dumfriesshire]).
  8. The Wee Bannock (Scotland [Selkirkshire]).
  9. The Fox and the Little Bonnach (Scotland).
  10. The Gingerbread Boy (USA).
  11. The Johnny-Cake (USA).
  12. The Little Cakeen (USA).
  13. The Devil in the Dough-Pan (Russia).
  1. The Old Woman and Her Pig (England).
  2. Moorachug and Meenachug (Scotland).
  3. The Wife and Her Bush of Berries (Scotland).
  4. The Wifie an Her Kidie (Scotland).
  5. Nanny Who Wouldn't Go Home to Supper (Norway).
  1. The Transformed Mouse Seeks a Bridegroom (India).
  2. A Story on Caste (India).
  3. The Rats and Their Daughter (Japan).
  4. A Bridegroom for Miss Mole (Korea).
  5. The Most Powerful Husband in the World (French North Africa).
  6. The Vole Who Sought a Wife (Marie de France).
  7. The Mouse Metamorphosed into a Maid (Jean de La Fontaine).
  8. The Story of the Rat and Her Journey to God (Romania).
  1. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts (India).
  2. The Flight of the Beasts (Tibet).
  3. The Story of Chicken-Licken (England).
  4. Henny-Penny and Her Fellow Travelers (Scotland).
  5. Henny-Penny (England/Australia).
  6. The End of the World (Ireland)
  7. The Cock and the Hen That Went to Dovrefjell (Norway).
  8. The Little Chicken Kluk and His Companions (Denmark).
  9. The End of the World (Flanders).
  10. Brother Rabbit Takes Some Exercise (African-American).

(children's games with chain-tale narratives.

  1. Changelings: An Essay by D. L. Ashliman. . A poem by James Russell Lowell.
  2. The Changeling. A ballad by John Greenleaf Whittier.
  3. Changeling Legends from the British Isles. Stories from England, Wales, the Isle of Man, Scotland, and Ireland.
  4. German Changeling Legends. Stories from German-speaking countries. . Stories from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, The Faroe Islands, and Iceland.
  1. Cure for the Sprain (Ireland).
  2. Sprain Thread (Ireland).
  3. Straining Thread (Ireland).
  4. The Wristing or Wresting Thread (Orkney Islands).
  5. When a Person Has Received a Sprain (Shetland Islands).
  6. Link to the second Merseburg Incantation -- Merseburger Zauberspruch -- (Germany).
  1. Solomon and the Two Women (Bible, First Book of Kings).
  2. The Iugement of the kynge Salamon (Geoffroy de La Tour Landry).
  3. The Future Buddha as a Wise Judge (The Jataka Tales).
  4. The Question Regarding the Son (Ummaga Jataka).
  5. The Brahman and His Two Wives (Telugu Folktale).
  1. The Cinder Maid (reconstructed from various European sources by Joseph Jacobs).
  2. Cinderella or, The Little Glass Slipper (France).
  3. Cinderella (Germany).
  4. Katie Woodencloak (Norway).
  5. The Broken Pitcher (England).
  6. Ashey Pelt (Ireland).
  7. Fair, Brown, and Trembling (Ireland).
  8. The Sharp Grey Sheep (Scotland).
  9. Rashin-Coatie (Scotland).
  10. The Hearth-Cat (Portugal).
  11. Cinderella (Italy).
  12. Little Saddleslut (Greece).
  13. Conkiajgharuna, the Little Rag Girl (Georgia).
  14. Pepelyouga (Serbia).
  15. The Wonderful Birch (Russia).
  16. The Baba Yaga (Russia).
  17. The Wicked Stepmother (Kashmir).
  18. Maria and the Golden Slipper (Philippines).
  19. The Poor Turkey Girl (Native American, Zuni).
  20. The Turkey Herd (Native American, Zuni).
  21. The Indian Cinderella (Native American).
  22. Link to The Green Knight (Denmark).
  23. Link to The Father Who Wanted to Marry His Daughter. Folktales of type 510B.
  1. The Brahman's Clothes (India).
  2. Nasreddin Hodja at a Bridal Festival (Turkey).
  3. Eat, My Clothes! (Italy).
  4. Heroes They Seemed When Once They Were Clothed (Iceland).
  1. White Cap (Iceland).
  2. The Shroud (Russia).
  3. The Stolen Liver (Poland).
  4. Ahlemann (Germany).
  5. The Man from the Gallows (Germany).
  6. The Burial Dress (Germany).
  7. The Audacious Girl (Germany).
  8. The Golden Leg (Germany).
  9. Saddaedda (Italy).
  10. The Golden Arm (England).
  11. The Golden Cup (England).
  12. Teeny-Tiny (England).
  13. Give Me My Teeth (England).
  14. The Old Man at the White House (England).
  15. A Ghost Story (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  16. How to Tell a Story: The Golden Arm (African-American, Mark Twain).
  1. The Cruel Crane Outwitted (India, The Jataka).
  2. The Heron That Liked Crab-Meat (India, The Panchatantra).
  3. The Heron and the Crab (India, The Book of Kalilah and Dimnah).
  4. The Crane and the Makara (India, The Kathá Sarit Ságara).
  5. The Booby and the Crab (India, The Hitopadesa).
  6. The Crane and the Fish (India).
  7. The Crane, the Crab, and the Fish (India).
  8. The Pelican's Punishment (Malaya).
  9. The Heron and the Crab (Sri Lanka).
  10. The Story of a Fish in the Pond (The 1001 Nights).
  11. The Fishes and the Cormorant (Jean de La Fontaine).
  12. The Heron, the Fishes, and the Crab (Leo Tolstoy).

    .
    1. The Making of the Earth.
    2. Languages Confused on a Mountain.
    3. Order of Life and Death.
    4. Why People Die Forever.
    5. The First Marriage.
    6. Old Man Leads a Migration.
    7. Old Man and the Great Spirit.

  1. How the World Was Made.
  2. The Creation (Igorot).
  3. How the Moon and the Stars Came to Be (Bukidnon).
  4. Origin (Bagobo).
  5. The Story of the Creation (Bilaan).
  6. In the Beginning (Bilaan).
  7. The Children of the Limokon (Mandaya).
  8. The Creation Story (Tagalog).
  1. The Origin of the Wrekin (England).
  2. Bomere Pool (England).
  3. The Origin of Tis Lake (Denmark).
  4. The Origin of the Island Hiddensee (Germany).
  1. Origin of the Hidden People (Iceland).
  2. When Satan Was Cast out of Heaven (Sweden).
  3. Origin of the Underground People in Amrum (Germany).
  4. Origin of the Elemental Spirits in Bohemia (Bohemia).
  5. Origin of the Fairies (Wales).
  1. The Farmer and the Devil on Island of the Popefigs (France, François Rabelais).
  2. The Troll Outwitted (Denmark).
  3. The Bear and the Fox Go into Partnership (Norway).
  4. The Fox and the Wolf Plant Oats and Potatoes (Scotland).
  5. The Farmer and the Boggart (England).
  6. The Bogie and the Farmer (England).
  7. Jack o' Kent and the Devil: The Tops and the Butts (England).
  8. Th' Man an' th' Boggard (England).
  9. Paddy Always on Top (Ireland).
  10. Above the Ground and under the Ground (USA).
  11. The Peasant and the Devil (Germany).
  12. Saint John and the Devil (Italy/Austria).
  13. The Peasant and the Bear (Russia).
  14. Mercury and the Traveler (Aesop).

, as recorded by the Roman writer Lucius Apuleius.

    . Tales of type 592.
    1. The Jew in the Thorns (Germany).
    2. They Dance to the Pipe (Austria).
    3. Little Freddy and His Fiddle (Norway).
    4. The Gifts of the Magician (Finland).
    5. Jack Horner's Magic Pipes (England).
    6. The Friar and the Boy (England).
    7. The Golden Harp (Wales).
    8. Cecilio, the Servant of Emilio (Philippines).
    9. Cochinango (Philippines).
  1. The Parable of the Mustard Seed (A Buddhist parable).
  2. The Death of a Dearly Loved Grandson (A Buddhist parable from The Udana).
  3. Ubbiri: Why Weep for Eighty-Four Thousand Daughters (A Buddhist parable).
  4. The Burial Shirt (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. A Mother's Tears (Thomas of Cantimpré).
  6. Let the Dead Rest (Germany).
  7. Grief-Stricken Mothers (Germany).
  8. The Sad Little Angel (Germany).
  9. Excessive Grief for the Dead (England).
  1. Torke's Child Is Dead / Kilian's Child Is Dead (Germany).
  2. Hübel and Habel (Germany).
  3. Prilling and Pralling Is Dead (Germany).
  4. Pingel Is Dead! (Germany).
  5. The Unknown Girl (Germany).
  6. King Pippe Is Dead! (Denmark).
  7. The Troll Turned Cat (Denmark).
  8. The Cat of the Carman's Stage (Ireland).
  9. The King of the Cats (Ireland).
  10. The King of the Cats (Scotland).
  11. The King o' the Cats (England).
  12. Dildrum, King of the Cats (England).
  13. Mally Dixon (England).
  14. Johnny Reed's Cat (England).
  15. Le Petit Colin (Guernsey).

, a folk legend from Switzerland with an ending quite different from that of the familiar fairy tale "Snow-White and the Seven Dwarfs" by the Grimm brothers.

  1. Death's Messengers (retold by D. L. Ashliman).
  2. Death's Messengers (Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof, Wendunmuth).
  3. Death's Messengers (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. An Old Man That Was Willing to Put off Death (Laurentius Abstemius).
  5. Our Lord and the Church Father (Transylvania).
  6. The Old Man and the Physician (Rumi, The Masnavi).
  7. Spanish Moss (Georgia, USA).
  1. How the Devil Married Three Sisters (Italy).
  2. The Cobbler and His Three Daughters (Basque).
  3. Your Hen Is in the Mountain (Norway).
  4. Fitcher's Bird (Germany).
  5. The Hare's Bride (Germany).
  6. The Three Chests: The Story of the Wicked Old Man of the Sea (Finland).
  7. The Widow and Her Daughters (Scotland).
  8. Peerifool (Scotland).
  9. The Secret Room (USA).
  10. Zerendac (Palestine).
  11. The Tiger's Bride (India).
  1. Michael Scott (Scotland).
  2. Mitchell Scott (England).
  3. Donald Duival and the Devil (England).
  4. A Wild Legend (Scotland).
  5. The Devil and the Schoolmaster at Cockerham (England).
  6. Tregeagle (England).
  7. The Devil's Mill (Ireland).
  8. The Shoemaker, the Tailor, and the Sailor (Germany).
  9. The Cheated Devil (Germany).
  1. The Brahmarâkshas and the Hair (India)
  2. Tapai and the Brahman (India)
  3. The Devil and the Farmer (England)
  4. Tricking the Devil (Germany)
  1. Ridiculing the Devil (Martin Luther).
  2. The Peasant and the Devil (Martin Montanus).
  3. Timmermann's Fart (Germany).
  4. Deceiving the Devil (Germany).
  5. The Cheated Devil (Germany).
  6. The Square Knot (East Prussia).
  7. A Story (Ireland).
  8. A Funny Story (Ireland).
  1. The Sachsenhäuser Bridge at Frankfurt (Germany).
  2. The Bamberg Cathedral and Bridge (Germany).
  3. The Devil's Bridge in Lake Galenbeck (Germany).
  4. The Devil's Bridge (Austria).
  5. The Taugl Bridge (Austria).
  6. The Devil's Bridge (Switzerland).
  7. The Devil's Bridge (Switzerland/France).
  8. The Legend of the Devil's Bridge (Tuscany, Italy).
  9. The Devil's Bridge in Martorell (Catalonia, Spain).
  10. The Devil's Bridge in Cardiganshire (Wales).
  11. The Devil's Bridge (Wales).
  12. The Devil's Bridge (Wales).
  13. The Devil's Bridge at Kirkby (England).
  14. The Bridge at Kentchurch (England).
  15. The Devil's Bridge (England).
  16. Kilgrim Bridge (England).
  1. The Miller and the Tailor (England).
  2. The Bag of Nuts (Derbyshire, England).
  3. Mother Elston's Bag of Nuts (Devonshire, England).
  4. Tom Daly and the Nut-Eating Ghost (Ireland).
  5. Dividing the Souls (Virginia, USA).
  6. Dividing the Souls (North Carolina, USA).
  1. The Cobbler Turned Doctor (Attributed to Aesop).
  2. Harisarman (India).
  3. The Stolen Treasure (India).
  4. The Four Jogis (India).
  5. Crab (Italy).
  6. Doctor Know-All (Germany).
  7. Doctor Cure-All (Ireland).
  8. Black Robin (Wales).
  9. Doctor and Detective (Denmark).
  10. The Charcoal Burner (Norway).
  11. John the Conjurer (Spain).
  12. Suan's Good Luck (Philippines).
  1. The Three Dreams (Petrus Alphonsi).
  2. The Three Travelers (The Masnavi).
  3. Jesus, Peter, and Judas (The Toledot Yeshu).
  4. Of the Deceits of the Devil (Gesta Romanorum).
  5. Comical History of Three Dreamers. (Spain).
  6. The "Dream-Bread" Story Once More (USA).
  7. The Three Travelers and the Load (W. A. Clouston).
  1. A Man Who Found Gold During His Sleep (Poggio Bracciolini).
  2. The Hodja Dreams That He Had Found a Treasure (Attributed to Nasreddin Hodja).
  1. The Ruined Man Who Became Rich Again Through a Dream (The 1001 Nights).
  2. A Man of Baghdad (Persia).
  3. Numan's Dream (Turkey).
  4. How the Junkman Traveled to Find treasure in His Own Yard (Turkey).
  5. The Peddler of Swaffham (England).
  6. The Swaffham Legend (England).
  7. A Cobbler in Somersetshire (England).
  8. Upsall Castle (England).
  9. Dundonald Castle (Scotland).
  10. Themselves (Isle of Man).
  11. Dreaming Tim Jarvis (Ireland).
  12. The Bridge of the Kist (Ireland).
  13. The Dream of Treasure under the Bridge at Limerick (Ireland).
  14. A Kerry Man (Ireland).
  15. Treasure at Ardnaveagh (Ireland).
  16. The Dream of the Treasure on the Bridge (Germany).
  17. The Pine Tree of Steltzen (Germany).
  18. A Good Dream (Switzerland).
  19. The Dream of Treasure (Austria).
  20. The Dream of the Zirl Bridge (Austria).
  21. The Golden Fox (Czech Republic / Austria).
  22. The Church at Erritsø (Denmark).
  23. The Treasure in Translet (Denmark).
  1. The Sheep, the Lamb, the Wolf, and the Hare (Tibet).
  2. The Lambikin (India).
  3. The Fisher and the Little Fish (Aesop).
  4. The Dog and the Wolf (Bohemia).
  5. Mr. Hawk and Brother Rabbit (African-America).
  1. The Luck of Edenhall (1). A fairy legend from Cumberland, England.
  2. The Luck of Eden Hall (2). Another version of the above legend.
  3. The Luck of Eden Hall (3). A third version of the above legend.
  4. The Luck of Eden Hall (4). A fourth version of the above legend.
  5. Das Glück von Edenhall. A German ballad by Ludwig Uhland.
  6. The Luck of Edenhall. An English translation of Uhland's ballad by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
  1. The Emperor's New Clothes (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  2. The Invisible Cloth (Spain).
  3. How Eulenspiegel Painted the Forbears of the Landgrave of Hessen (Germany).
  4. Fine Thread (Russia).
  5. The Miller with the Golden Thumb (England).
  6. The King's New Turban (Turkey).
  7. The King and the Clever Girl (India).
  8. The Invisible Silk Robe (Sri Lanka).
  1. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts (India, The Jataka Tales).
  2. The Flight of the Beasts (Tibet, Anton Schiefner).
  3. The Story of Chicken-Licken (England, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps).
  4. Henny-Penny and Her Fellow Travelers (Scotland, Robert Chambers).
  5. Henny-Penny (England/Australia).
  6. The End of the World (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  7. The Cock and the Hen That Went to Dovrefjell (Norway, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe).
  8. The Little Chicken Kluk and His Companions (Denmark, Benjamin Thorpe).
  9. The End of the World (Flanders, Jean de Bosschère).
  10. Brother Rabbit Takes Some Exercise (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
    . Migratory legends of type 5050.
    1. A Redeemer for the Elves? (Sweden).
    2. Salvation for the Neck (Sweden).
    3. The Water Nymph (Sweden).
    4. The Prospects of the Huldre-Folk for Salvation (Norway).
    5. The Trolls Desire to Be Saved (Denmark).
    6. The Clergyman and the Dwarfs (Denmark).
    7. When We Cease to Exist. (An excerpt from "The Little Mermaid" by Hans Christian Andersen).
    8. A Ross-shire Narrative (Scotland).
    9. The Priest's Supper (Ireland).
    10. The Belated Priest (Ireland).
    11. The First Turf Fire (Ireland).
  1. A Fairy Caught (England).
  2. Skillywidden the Fairy (England).
  3. Colman Grey (England).
  4. A Woman Caught a Fairy (Wales).
  5. The Wonderful Plough (Germany).
  6. Krachöhrle! Where Are You? (Germany).
  7. Link to The Leprechaun: Ireland's Fairy Shoemaker, additional tales about captured fairies.
  1. The Oldenburg Horn (Germany, Hermann Hamelmann).
  2. The Oldenburg Horn (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn and Wilhelm Schwartz).
  3. The Osenberg Dwarfs (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Stolen Cup (Germany, Karl Müllenhoff).
  5. Church Cups (Germany/Denmark, Karl Müllenhoff).
  6. The Altar Cup in Aagerup [Ågerup] (Denmark, Thomas Keightley).
  7. Svend Fælling and the Elle-Maid (Denmark, J. M. Thiele).
  8. The Öiestad [Øyestad] Horn (Norway, Benjamin Thorpe).
  9. The Trolls Celebrate Christmas (Sweden, Benjamin Thorpe).
  10. Origin of the Noble Name of Trolle (Sweden, Benjamin Thorpe).
  11. The Fairy Banquet (England, William of Newburgh).
  12. The Fairy Horn (England, Gervase of Tilbury).
  13. The Story of the Fairy Horn (England, Ernest Rhys).
  14. The Rillaton Gold Cup (England, Sabine Baring-Gould).
  15. The Luck of Edenhall [Eden Hall] (England).
  16. The Fairy Cup of Kirk Malew (Isle of Man, George Waldron).
  17. The Silver Cup (Isle of Man, Sophia Morrison).
  18. The Trowie Pig (Scotland, John Nicolson).

. Legends from the Scottish Isle of Sky about a gift from a fairy lover.

  1. The Fairies and the Hump-Back (Scotland).
  2. The Hunchback of Willow Brake (Scotland).
  3. The Legend of Knockgrafton (Ireland).
  4. The Palace in the Rath (Ireland).
  5. A Fairy Tale in the Ancient English Style (Thomas Parnell).
  6. Billy Beg, Tom Beg, and the Fairies (Isle of Man).
  7. The Fairies and the Two Hunchbacks: A Story of Picardy (France)
  8. The Tailor on the Brocken (Germany).
  9. The Gifts of the Mountain Spirits (Germany).
  10. The Gifts of the Little People (Germany).
  11. The Two Hunchbacked Brothers (Italy).
  12. The Two Humpbacks (Italy).
  13. The Elves and the Envious Neighbor (Japan).
  14. How an Old Man Lost His Wen (Japan).
  15. The Old Man with the Wen (Japan).
  16. The Story of Hok Lee and the Dwarfs (China).
  1. Of the Subterranean Inhabitants (Scotland).
  2. Fairy Theft (Scotland).
  3. Fairy Control over Crops (Ireland).
  4. Fairies on May Day (Ireland).
  5. The Sidhe (Ireland).
  6. The Silver Cup (Isle of Man).
  7. The Three Cows (England).
  8. A "Verry Volk" Fest (Wales and Brittany).
  9. Riechert the Smith (Germany).
  1. Of Chastity (Gesta Romanorum).
  2. The Man Hitched to a Plow (France/Germany).
  3. Conrad von Tannenberg (Germany).
  4. The Tsaritsa Harpist (Russia).
  5. The Lute Player (Russia).
  6. A Story Told by a Hindu (India).
  7. Link to Andreas Grein of Purbach, a related legend about Turkish slavery from Burgenland, Austria.
  1. Doralice (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  2. The She-Bear (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  3. Donkey Skin (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. Ass-Skin (Basque, Wentworth Webster).
  5. All-Kinds-of-Fur, also known as "Allerleirauh" (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, version of 1812, with a link to the version of 1857).
  6. Cinder Blower (Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  7. Kaiser Heinrich in Sudemer Mountain (Germany, A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
  8. Broomthrow, Brushthrow, Combthrow (Austria, Theodor Vernaleken).
  9. The Emperor's Daughter in the Pig Stall (Romania, Arthur and Albert Schott).
  10. Fair Maria Wood (Italy, Thomas Frederick Crane).
  11. Maria Wood (Italy, Rachel Harriette Busk).
  12. All-Kinds-of-Fur (Greece, J. G. von Hahn).
  13. The Princess Who Would Not Marry Her Father (Portugal, Consiglieri Pedroso).
  14. The Horse's Skin (Portugal, Francisco Adolpho Coelho).
  15. The King Who Wished to Marry His Daughter (Scotland, J. F. Campbell).
  16. Morag a Chota Bhain -- Margery White Coats (Scotland, J. F. Campbell).
  17. Rashen Coatie (Scotland, Peter Buchan).
  18. The Princess and the Golden Cow (England, Isabella Barclay).
  19. The Story of Catskin (England, James Orchard Halliwell).
  20. The Princess in the Cat-Skins (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  21. The Beautiful Princess (Lithuania, August Schleicher).
  22. Pigskin (Little Russia [Ukraine], Alexander Afanasyev).
  23. Kniaz Danila Govorila (Russia, Alexander Afanasyev).
  24. Seggu-Jataka: How a Pious Greengrocer Tested His Daughter's Virtue (India, The Jataka).
  1. Doctor Johann Faustus (Germany, abstracted from the Faust Chapbook of 1587).
  2. Doctor Faust in Neu-Ruppin (Germany).
  3. Dr. Faust at Boxberg Castle (Germany).
  4. Dr. Faust in Erfurt (Germany).
  5. Dr. Faust and Melanchton in Wittenberg (Germany).
  6. Dr. Faust in Anhalt (Germany, Ludwig Bechstein).
  7. How Doctor Faust Came Back to Life (Germany).
  8. Faustschlössl (Austria).
  9. Doctor Faust at Castle Waardenburg (Netherlands).
  10. Faust's Book of Hell's Charms (Germany).
  11. Dr. Faust's Hell-Master (Germany).
  12. The Pact (Austria).
  13. A Scholar Assigns Himself to the Devil (Denmark).
  14. Doctor Faustus Was a Good Man (1) (a nursery rhyme from England).
  15. Doctor Faustus Was a Good Man (2) (a nursery rhyme from England).
  16. Dule upon Dun (England).
  17. Devil Compacts (Scotland).
  18. Dafydd Hiraddug and the Crow Barn (Wales, Elias Owen).
  19. Selected literary works based on the Faust Legend.
  20. Selected musical works based on the Faust Legend.
  1. The Fisherman and His Wife (Germany).
  2. Hanns Dudeldee (Germany).
  3. The Old Man, His Wife, and the Fish (Russia).
  4. The Stonecutter (Japan).
  5. The Bullock's Balls (India).
  1. The Sailors Said They Saw the Flying Dutchman (John MacDonald, 1790).
  2. The Story of the Flying Dutchman (A Voyage to New South Wales, 1795).
  3. A Common Superstition of Mariners (Scotland, 1803).
  4. Written on Passing Dead-Man's Island (Thomas Moore, 1804).
  5. The Dæman-Frigate (Sir Walter Scott, 1813).
  6. Vanderdecken's Message Home (Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 1821).
  7. The Flying Dutchman (The Voyage of H.M.S. Leven, 1823).
  8. The Fable of the Flying Dutchman (Heinrich Heine, The Memoirs of Herr von Schnabelewopski, 1833).
  9. The Flying Dutchman of the Tappan Sea (Washington Irving Wolfert's Roost, 1855).
  10. The Rotterdam (Scotland, 1859).
  11. The Spectre Ship of Porthcurno (Cornwall, England, 1865).
  12. We Meet the Flying Dutchman (The Cruise of Her Majesty's Ship "Bacchante," 1881).
  13. The Phantom Ship (James William Buehl, 1891).
  14. Links to additional texts.
  1. The Mosquito and the Carpenter (The Jataka Tales).
  2. The Foolish Friend (The Panchatantra).
  3. The Gardner and the Bear (Bidpai).
  4. The Stupid Boy (Sri Lanka).
  5. The Seven Wise Men of Buneyr (Pakistan).
  6. The Bald Man and the Fly (Aesop).
  7. The Bear and the Amateur of Gardening (Jean de La Fontaine).
  8. Fortunio (Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  9. Giufà and the Judge (Italy).
  10. The Little Omelet (Italy).
  11. Permission Granted, but Probably Regreted (Switzerland).
  12. Foolish Hans (Austria-Hungary).
  13. The Blockhead and the Judge (England).
  14. The Tale of the Butter Tub (Iceland).
  15. The Seven Crazy Fellows (Philippines).
  16. The Monkeys and the Dragonflies (Philippines).
  1. The Two-Headed Weaver (The Panchatantra).
  2. The Three Wishes (1001 Nights).
  3. The Ridiculous Wishes (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. The Sausage (Sweden, Gabriel Djurklou).
  5. Loppi and Lappi (Estonia, Friedrich Kreutzwald).
  6. The Wishes (Hungary, W. Henry Jones and Lewis L. Kropf).
  7. The Woodman's Three Wishes (England, Thomas Sternberg).
  8. The Three Wishes (England, Joseph Jacobs).
  9. The Monkey's Paw (England, W. W. Jacobs).
  1. The Simpleton with Ten Asses (Turkey).
  2. The Hodja and His Eight Donkeys (Turkey).
  3. Johha Fails to Count the Donkey He Is Riding (Palestine).
  1. Hans Dumb (Germany).
  2. Stupid Michel (Germany).
  3. Lazy Lars, Who Won the Princess (Denmark).
  4. Emelyan the Fool (Russia).
  5. Halfman (Greece).
  6. Juvadi and the Princess (Italy).
  7. Peter the Fool (Giovanni Francesco Straparola, The Facetious Nights).
  8. Peruonto (Giambattista Basile, The Pentamerone).
  1. The Twelve Men of Gotham (England).
  2. The Five Traveling Journeymen (Germany).
  3. The Seven Wise Men of Buneyr (Pakistan).
  4. The Lost Peasant (Kashmir).
  5. How the Kadambawa Men Counted Themselves (Sri Lanka).
  1. The Fish That Were Too Clever (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Crow and the Swan (India, The Mahabharata).
  3. A Fox and a Cat (Aesop, Roger L'Estrange, 1692).
  4. The Fox and the Cat (Aesop, Joseph Jacobs, 1894).
  5. The Cat and Fox (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  6. The Fox and the Cat (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  7. The Seven-Witted Fox and the One-Witted Owl (Romania).
  8. The Fox and His Bagful of Wits and the One-Witted Hedgehog (Romania).
  9. The Fox and the Hedgehog (South Slavonic).
  10. The Fox and the Hedgehog (Greece).
  11. The Bear as Judge (Finland).
  12. Two Losses (Georgia).
  13. Can You Swim? (England).
  1. The Fox and the Crow (Aesop, 4 versions).
  2. Le Corbeau et le Renard (La Fontaine).
  3. The Crow and the Fox (La Fontaine).
  4. Jambu-Khādaka-Jātaka. (India).
  5. Anta-Jātaka (India).
  6. Auac and Lamiran (Philippines).
  7. The Fox and the Raven (China).
  1. Reynard and Bruin (Europe).
  2. The Fox Cheats the Bear out of His Christmas Fare (Norway).
  3. The Fox and The Wolf (Netherlands).
  4. The Keg of Butter (Scotland).
  5. Cat and Mouse in Partnership (Germany).
  6. Mister Rabbit Nibbles Up the Butter (African-American).
  1. The Fox, the Wolf, and the Horse (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  2. Two Foxes and a Horse (Scotland).
  3. The Wolf and the Tailor (Russia).
  4. The Vixen and the Mule (Italy).

by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Frau Holle (Germany).
  2. Frau Holle and the Distaff (Germany).
  3. Saint Joseph in the Woods (Germany).
  4. The Two Girls and the Angel (Germany).
  5. The Two Stepsisters (Norway).
  6. The Fairies (France).
  7. The Bucket (Italy).
  8. The Three Heads of the Well (England).
  9. The Old Woman and the Two Servant Girls (England).
  10. The Old Witch (England).
  11. Morozko (Jack Frost) (Russia).
  12. The Twelve Months (Russia).
  13. Conkiajgharuna, the Little Rag-Girl (Georgia).
  14. The Two Stepsisters (Romania).
  15. The Three Gifts (Poland).
  16. Mangita and Larina (Philippines).
  17. The Bald Wife (India).
  18. Lazy Maria (USA).

. A Russian folktale of type 779J*.

. An account of a Danish hero from the Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus.

  1. The Frog King or, Iron Heinrich (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. The Frog Prince (The first English translation [with an altered title and a revised ending] of the above tale).
  3. The Frog Prince (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Wonderful Frog (Hungary).
  5. The Princess and the Frog (Ireland).
  6. The Enchanted Frog (Germany).
  7. The Queen Who Sought a Drink from a Certain Well (Scotland).
  8. The Paddo (Scotland).
  9. The Well of the World's End (Ireland).
  10. The Well of the World's End (Scotland).
  11. The Maiden and the Frog (England).
  12. The Frog Gentleman (England).
  13. The Kind Stepdaughter and the Frog (England).
  14. The Frog Prince (Sri Lanka [Ceylon]).
  15. A Frog for a Husband (Korea).
. A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

. A comparison, in the orignal German, of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Two Neighbour-Frogs (Aesop -- Roger L'Estrange).
  2. The Two Frogs Who Were Neighbours (Aesop -- George Fyler Townsend).
  3. Two Frogs That Wanted Water (Aesop -- Roger L'Estrange).
  4. The Two Frogs (Aesop -- George Fyler Townsend).
  5. How a Tortoise Came to Grief Because He Loved His Home Too Much (The Jataka).
  6. The Three Fishes (The Masnavi).
  • Gambara and the Longbeards (Langobards). A clever woman, with the help of the goddess Frea (Frigg), tricks Wodan (Odin) into blessing her tribe with victory.

    . Migratory legends of type 4025.
    1. Mother Mine, in the Fold, Fold (Iceland).
    2. I Should Have Gotten Married (Iceland).
    3. The Child Phantom (Sweden).
    4. Short-Hoggers o' Whittinghame (Scotland).
    5. Fine Flowers in the Valley (Scotland).
    6. Lady Anne (Scotland).
    7. The Infanticide Mother (England).
    8. The Crying Child (Poland).

  1. Two Spirits (Belgium).
  2. Do Not Disturb the Rest of the Dead (Germany).
  3. A Ghostly Council Meeting (Germany).
  4. The Death Shroud (Germany).
  5. The Scoffer of Herzberg (Germany).
  6. The Peasant and the Owls (Germany).
  7. The Preacher and the Ghost (Sweden).
  8. A Ghost Story (Ireland).
  9. Meg of Meldon (England).
  10. The Chivalrous Devil (England).
  1. Biancabella (Giovanni Francesco Straparola, The Facetious Nights).
  2. Penta the Handless (Giovanni Battista Basile, Il Pentamerone).
  3. The Innkeeper's Beautiful Daughter (Italy).
  4. The Girl without Hands (Italy / Austria).
  5. Beautiful Magdalene (Germany).
  6. The Girl without Hands (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm -- 1812).
  7. The Girl without Hands (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm -- 1857).
  8. The Daughter Who Was Promised to the Devil (Germany).
  9. The Girl without Hands (Finland).
  10. The Girl without Hands (Hungary).
  11. William of the Tree (Ireland).
  12. The Bad Stepmother (Ireland).
  13. The Cruel Stepmother (Scotland).
  14. Anecdote of a Charitable Woman (The 1001 Nights).
  15. The Girl without Legs (Somalia).
  16. Blessing or Property (Swahili).
  17. The Sun and the Moon (Eskimo).
  18. Sun and Moon (Eskimo).
  19. Wild Sanctuary: The Handless Maiden (Link to an essay by Terri Windling with art by Jeanie Tomanek).
  1. Godfather Death (Germany).
  2. Dr. Urssenbeck, Physician Death (Austria).
  3. The Boy with the Ale Keg (Norway).
  4. The Just Man (Italy).
  1. The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs (Aesop).
  2. The Goose and the Golden Eggs (Aesop).
  3. The Golden Mallard (from The Jataka or, Stories of The Buddha's Former Births).
  4. The Lucky-Bird Humá (Kashmir).
  5. The Duck That Laid Golden Eggs (Russia).
  6. The Golden Goose (Germany).

. The Grimm Brothers' final tale, an enigmatic story with no ending, suggesting perhaps that there is no final word in folktale interpretation.

  1. The Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Man (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Traveler and the Goldsmith (India, Kalila and Dimna).
  3. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Woman (India, The Kathasaritsagara).
  4. The Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Man (Tibet).
  5. Vitalis and the Woodcutter (England, attributed to Richard the Lionheart (Richard Coeur de Lion).
  6. Of Ingratitude (Gesta Romanorum).
  7. Adrian and Bardus (England, John Gower).
  1. Andersen, Hans Christian. Reisekammeraten (Denmark).
  2. Andersen, Hans Christian. The Travelling Companion (Denmark).
  3. Asbjørnsen, Peter Christen. The Companion (Norway).
  4. Campbell, J. F. The Barra Widow's Son (Scotland).
  5. Crane, Thomas Frederick. Fair Brow (Italy).
  6. Curtin, Jeremiah. Shaking Head (Ireland).
  7. Gale, James S. The Grateful Ghost (Korea).
  8. Gerould, Gordon Hall. The Grateful Dead: The History of a Folk Story.
  9. Groome, Francis Hindes. The Dead Man's Gratitude (Turkish-Gypsy).
  10. Grundtvig, Svend. De tre Mark (Denmark).
  11. Grundtvig, Svend. The Three Pennies (Denmark).
  12. Kennedy, Patrick. Jack the Master and Jack the Servant (Ireland).
  13. Lorimer, D. L. R. and E. O. The Story of the Grateful Corpse (Iran).
  14. MacManus, Seumas. The Snow, the Crow, and the Blood (Ireland).
  15. Spence, Lewis. The Man of Honour (Brittany).
  16. Steele, Robert. Sila Tsarevich and Ivashka with the White Smock (Russia).
  17. Straparola, Giovanni Francesco (or Gianfrancesco). Night 11, fable 2 of The Facetious Nights (Italy).
  18. Wolf, Johann Wilhelm. Des Todten Dank (Germany).
  19. Wratislaw, Albert Henry. The Spirit of a Buried Man (Poland).
  1. The Boy and the Filberts (Aesop).
  2. Capturing Monkeys (India).
  3. The Greedy Monkey (Pakistan).
  4. The Monkey and the Nuts (USA, Ambrose Bierce).

. A bibliography of books available without cost on the Internet.

    . Legends from Germany and Switzerland about wayward children whose hands, following their death and burial, refuse to stay buried.
    1. The Willful Child (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
    2. The Hand on the Grave (J. D. H. Temme).
    3. The Parent Murderer of Salzwedel (J. D. H. Temme).
    4. The Hand in Mellenthin (A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
    5. A Hand Grows from the Grave (A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
    6. A Hand Grows from the Grave (three legends, Karl Bartsch).
    7. The Withered Hand in the Church at Bergen (A. Haas).
    8. The Cursed Hand (Karl Haupt).
    9. A Hand Grows from the Grave (Bernhard Baader).
    10. The Hand That Grew from the Grave (J. G. Th. Grässe).
    11. A Child's Hand That Wrongly Attacked a Mother Grows Out of the Grave (Friederich Wagenfeld).
    12. A Mother Disciplines Her Deceased Child (Switzerland, Franz Niderberger).
  1. The Hand of Glory (Sabine Baring-Gould).
  2. The Hand of Glory (Francis Grose).
  3. The Inn of Spital on Stanmore (England, Thomas and Katharine Macquoid).
  4. The Hand of Glory (three legends from England, Edwin Sidney Hartland).
  5. The Hand of Glory in Herefordshire (England, Ella Mary Leather).
  6. Thief's Foot -- Thief's Hand -- Thief's Finger (Netherlands).
  7. Thieves' Thumbs (Germany, Jacob Grimm).
  8. Thieves' Lights (Germany, Ernst Moritz Arndt).
  9. Spell and Counter-Spell (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn).
  10. Thieves' Lights (two legends from Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  11. The Hands of Unbaptized Children (Switzerland).
  12. The Finger of Sin (Poland).

. The Girl without Hands: Tales of type 706.

  1. The Hanging Game (England).
  2. Boys Try Beheading (Germany/Poland).
  3. The Hanging Game (Switzerland).
  4. Playing at Hanging (China).

by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm: A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Hansel and Gretel (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. Ninnillo and Nennella (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  3. Little Thumb (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. Molly Whuppie (England).
  5. Jan and Hanna (Poland).
  6. Old Grule (Moravia).
  7. The Little Boy and the Wicked Stepmother (Romania).
  8. Juan and Maria (Philippines).
  1. The Hare and the Lion (Zanzibar).
  2. The Alligator and the Jackal (India).
  3. Heyo, House! (African-American).

, a legend about the heathen deity Hertha. This may be the earth goddess mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania, written in the year 98.

. A heroic epic from eight-century Germany.

  1. The Himphamp (Scandinavia).
  2. The Smith and the Priest (Germany).
  3. The Story of the Himphamp (Germany).
  4. Stupid Hans (Germany / Poland).
  5. The Count and the Smith (Poland).
  6. The Tale of the Basin (England).
  7. Jack Horner and the Innkeeper's Wife (England).
  8. The Enchanted Piss-Pot (England).
  9. The Plaisham (Ireland).
  10. The Raja's Son and the Kotwal's Son (India).
  11. The Love of Ares and Aphrodite (Homer, The Odyssey).
  12. Vulcan, Mars, and Venus (Ovid, The Metamorphoses).
  13. Vulcan, Mars, and Venus (The Romance of the Rose).
  1. King Pig (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  2. Hans-My-Hedgehog, version of 1814 (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  3. The Wild Pig (Germany).
  4. The Hedgehog That Married the King's Daughter (Lithuania).
  5. Prince Hedgehog (Russia).
  6. The Hedgehog, the Merchant, the King, and the Poor Man (Hungary).
  7. The Enchanted Pig (Romania).
  1. The Fox and the Horse (Germany).
  2. Reynard Wants to Taste Horseflesh (Norway).
  3. Fox and Wolf (Netherlands).
  4. Brother Fox Catches Mr. Horse (African America).
  5. The Fox and the Wolf (Native American--Chickasaw).
  1. The Man and the Satyr (Aesop).
  2. The Satyr and the Traveler (Jean de La Fontaine).
  3. The Peasant and the Satyrs (Flanders).
  4. The Peasant and the Student (Germany).

(Norway). A folktale of type 1408 in which a man and a woman exchange jobs for the day.

  1. Human Sacrifice among the Gauls (France).
  2. Aun Sacrifices Nine Sons to Odin (Sweden).
  3. The Heathen Temple at Uppsala (Sweden).
  4. Buried Alive (Sweden).
  5. Of the Pestilence in Jutland (Denmark).
  6. The Höxter Ghost (Germany).
  7. Entombment (Germany).
  8. The Entombed Child (Germany).
  9. The Ghost at Spyker (Germany).
  10. Sacrificing Virgins to Lakes (Germany).
  11. The Old Church at Kohlstädt (Germany).
  12. The Name Greene (Germany).
  13. An Infant Speaks (Germany).
  14. The Secured Foundation Stone (Germany).
  15. Plesse Castle (Germany).
  16. Merlin the Magician Rescues King Vortigern (Wales).
  17. Sacrifice, Human (England).
  18. London Bridge Has Fallen Down (England).
  19. The Magdeburg Bridge -- Die Magdeburger Brücke (Germany).
  20. Story of the Bridge (Turkey -- Gypsy).
  21. Rumors of Foundation Sacrifice (India).
  22. Mbila (a Kabyl legend).
  23. How the Cannibals Drove the People from Insofan Mountain to the Cross River (Nigeria).
  24. Jephthah and His Daughter (Book of Judges).
    . The history of the first Christian mission in Iceland, abstracted from the medieval epic Njal's Saga.
  1. The Crocodile, the Brahman, and the Fox (India, The Southern Panchatantra).
  2. The Camel Driver and the Adder (Bidpai).
  3. The Brahman, the Tiger, and the Six Judges (India).
  4. The Tiger, the Brahman, and the Jackal (India).
  5. The Farmer, the Crocodile, and the Jackal (Pakistan).
  6. The Young Man and the Snake (Pakistan).
  7. The Jackal's Judgment (Sri Lanka).
  8. The Unmannerly Tiger (Korea).
  9. The Snake's Thanks (Jewish).
  10. Inside Again (Europe).
  11. Of Nature and the Returns of Ingratitude (Gesta Romanorum).
  12. The Reward of Good Deeds (Denmark).
  13. The Reward of Kindness (Finland).
  14. The Man, the Serpent, and the Fox (Greece).
  15. The Ingrates (Italy).
  16. The Lion, the Horse, and the Fox (Italy).
  17. Ingratitude Is the World's Reward (Moravia).
  18. The World's Reward (Russia).
  19. The Peasant, the Snake, and King Solomon (Romania).
  20. Brother Wolf Still in Trouble (African-American).
  1. The Two Frogs
  2. The Mirror of Matsuyama
  3. Visu the Woodsman and the Old Priest
  4. Little Peachling (Momotaro)
  5. The Tongue-Cut Sparrow
  6. A Woman and the Bell of Miidera
  7. The Stonecutter
  8. Danzayémon, Chief of the Etas
  1. The Robe of Feathers.
  2. The Snow Bride.
  3. Willow Wife.
  4. The White Butterfly.
  5. The Vampire Cat.
  6. The Firefly.
  7. The Princess Peony.
  1. The Future Buddha as a Wise Judge.
  2. The Mosquito and the Carpenter.
  3. The Golden Mallard.
  4. The Tortoise That Loved His Home Too Much.
  5. How a Parrot Told Tales of His Mistress and Had His Neck Wrung.
  6. The Monkey's Heart.
  7. The Talkative Tortoise.
  8. The People Who Saw the Judas Tree.
  9. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts.
  10. How a Vain Woman Was Reborn As a Dung-Worm.
  11. The Language of Animals.
  12. Sulasa and Sattuka.
  13. How an Ungrateful Son Planned to Murder His Old Father.

. A story of human sacrifice from the Old Testament.

  1. The Language of Animals (from The Jataka or, Stories of the Buddha's Former Births).
  2. The King and His Inquisitive Queen (India).
  3. The Billy Goat and the King (India).
  4. Ramai and the Bonga (India).
  5. The King Who Learnt the Speech of Animals (Sri Lanka).
  6. The Bull, the Donkey, and the Husbandman (from The 1001 Nights).
  7. The Merchant Who Knew the Language of Beasts (Palestine).
  8. The Snake's Gift: Language of Animals (Serbia).
  9. The Language of Animals (Bulgaria).
  10. The Language of Beasts (Bulgaria).
  11. Woman's Curiosity (Hungary).
  12. The Dog and the Cock (Denmark).
  13. The Wicked Wife (Germany).
  14. Frederigo da Pozzuolo Is Pressed by His Wife to Tell a Secret (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  1. Variant spellings and designations.
  2. Lepreghaun (Lady Morgan Sydney).
  3. The Field of Boliauns [Ragweed] (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  4. The Little Shoe (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  5. Cluricaune or Leprehaune (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  6. The Three Leprechauns (Thomas Keightley).
  7. The Kildare Lurikeen (Patrick Kennedy).
  8. The Leprehaun (Lady Wilde).
  9. The Solitary Fairies: Lepracaun, Cluricaun, Far Darrig (William Butler Yeats).
  10. The Maker of Brogues (Brampton Hunt).

    . Fables of type 92.
    1. The Lion and the Hare (India, The Panchatantra).
    2. The Lion and the Hare (Bidpai).
    3. The Lion Whose Name Was Pingala (India).
    4. Singh Rajah [Lion King] and the Cunning Little Jackals (India).
    5. The Killing of the Rakhas (India).
    6. The Lion and the Hare (India).
    7. The Tiger and the Shadow (Malaya).
    8. The Tiger and the Hare (Pakistan).
    9. The Tiger and the Fox (Pakistan).
    10. The Hare and the Lions (Tibet).
    11. Brother Rabbit Conquers Brother Lion (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
    12. Lion Brooks No Rival (African-American).

  1. The Lion, the Wolf, and the Fox (Aesop).
  2. The Lion, Wolf, and Fox (Jean de La Fontaine).
  3. The Hyena Outwitted (India).
  4. The King of the Tigers Is Sick (Malaya).
  1. The Brahman's Wife and the Mongoose (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Dog and the Snake and the Child (India, The Book of Sindibad)
  3. The Brahman's Wife and the Mongoose (India, Georgiana Kingscote).
  4. The Greyhound, the Serpent, and the Child (The Seven Wise Masters).
  5. Folliculus and His Greyhound (Gesta Romanorum).
  6. Beth Gellert (Wales, Joseph Jacobs).
  7. The Dog Gellert (Wales, Horace E. Scudder).
  8. The Farmer and His Dog (a modern fable).
    from Tales of a Wayside Inn.
  1. Norse Ballads of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
    • The Challenge of Thor.
    • Thangbrand the Priest.
    • The Skeleton in Armor.
    • Tegner's Drapa [on the death of Balder the Beautiful].
  1. Lying Tale (England).
  2. Sir Gammer Vans (England).
  3. One Dark Night (USA).
  4. Knoist and His Three Sons (Germany).
  5. The Three Brothers (Italy).
  1. Books on Black Art (Ireland).
  2. The Wondrous Michael Scott (Scotland).
  3. The Magic Book (Guben, Germany).
  4. The Magic Book and the Crows (Guben, Germany).
  5. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Guben, Germany).
  6. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Meesow, Germany / Mieszewo, Poland).
  7. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Chemnitz, Germany).
  8. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Rügen, Germany).
  9. The Black Book (Rügen, Germany).
  10. Faust's Book of Hell's Charms (Zellerfeld, Germany).
  11. Dr. Faust's Hell-Master (Erzgebirge, Germany).
  12. The Book of Cyprianus (Denmark).
  13. The Book of Magic (Russia).
  1. The Man and the Serpent (Aesop).
  2. The Gold-Giving Snake (The Panchatantra).
  3. Of Good Advice (Gesta Romanorum).
  4. The Rattlesnake's Vengeance (Native American, Cherokee).
  1. The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey (Aesop).
  2. The Lady's Nineteenth Story (Turkey).
  3. It Is Difficult to Please Everyone (Turkey).
  4. Of the Olde Man and His Sonne That Brought His Asse to the Towne to Sylle (England).
  5. An Unusual Ride (Switzerland/Germany).
  6. The Miller, His Son, and the Ass (Jean de La Fontaine).
  7. Le Meunier, son fils et l'âne (Jean de La Fontaine).

(Norway). A masterful telling of a type 313 folktale.

  1. Loki and the Master Builder (From The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson.
  2. King Olaf and the Giant (Norway/Sweden).
  3. The Giant Finn and Lund's Cathedral (Sweden).
  4. Esbern Snare and the Kalundborg Church (Denmark).
  5. The Builder Zi (Denmark).
  6. Who Built the Reynir Church? (Iceland).
  7. The Devil's Church near Dembe (Poland).
  8. Why the North Tower of Saint Stephen's Cathedral Remains Unfinished (Austria).
  9. The Two Master Builders at Wasserburg (Germany).
  10. The Master Builder of the Würzburg Cathedral (Germany).
  1. The Fair Melusina (Albania).
  2. Melusina (France).
  3. The Legend of Beautiful Melusina, the Ancestress of Luxembourg Counts (Luxembourg).
  4. Melusina -- Soldiers' Legend (Luxembourg).
  5. The Mysterious Maiden Mélusine (Luxembourg).
  6. Melusina (Germany).
  7. Herr Peter Dimringer von Staufenberg (Germany).
  8. The Water Maid (Germany).
  9. Brauhard's Mermaid (Germany).
  10. Melusina (Germany).
  1. The Mermaid Wife (Shetland Islands).
  2. The Silkie Wife (Shetland and Orkney Islands).
  3. Herman Perk and the Seal (Shetland Islands).
  4. The Sealskin (Iceland).
  5. Touched by Iron (Wales).
  6. Tom Moore and the Seal (Ireland).
  7. The Lady of Gollerus (Ireland).
  1. The first poem describes the activities of valkyrie-like sorceresses called "the Idisi" who have the power to bind or to free battling warriors. Following the narrative are the words of a brief incantation or charm chanted to free captured warriors.
  2. The second poem tells how a number of goddesses unsuccessfully attempt to cure the injured leg of Balder's horse. Wodan, with his unfailing magic, knows the right charm, and the horse is healed. The narrative concludes with the actual words of an incantation used to heal broken limbs. This pre-Christian incantation is similar to charms against sprains recorded in Ireland and in the Orkney and Shetland Islands in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  1. Midas (Greece).
  2. The Goat's Ears of the Emperor Trojan (Serbia).
  3. The King with the Horse's Ears (Ireland).
  4. March's Ears (1) (Wales).
  5. March's Ears (2) (Wales).
  6. The Child with the Ears of an Ox (India).
  7. The Presidente Who Had Horns (Philippines).
  1. The Troll Labor (Sweden, Peter Rahm).
  2. The Clergyman's Wife (Sweden).
  3. The Servant Girl and the Elves (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Godmother (Switzerland, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. The Woman among the Elves (Germany, Karl Lyncker).
  6. The Dwarfs in Schalk Mountain (Germany, Carl and Theodor Colshorn).
  7. An Underground Woman in Labor (Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  8. Midwife for a Nixie (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn and Wilhelm Schwartz).
  9. The Midwife of Hafoddydd (Wales, John Rhys).
  10. The Fairy Nurse (Ireland, W. R. Wilde).
  11. The Fairy Nurse (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  12. The Midwife of Listowel (Ireland, Jeremiah Curtin).
  13. Fairy Ointment (England, Anna Eliza Bray).
  14. Fairy Ointment (England, Joseph Jacobs).
  1. The Monkey Boy (India).
  2. The Monkey and the Girl (India).
  3. The Monkey Husband (India).
  4. Juan Wearing a Monkey's Skin (Philippines).
  5. The Enchanted Prince (Philippines).
  6. Mr. Monkey, the Bridegroom (French Louisiana).
  1. The Monkey's Heart (India, Jataka Tales).
  2. The Monkey and the Crocodile (India, Suka Saptati or, Seventy Tales of a Parrot)
  3. The Foolish Dragon (China).
  4. The Monkey and the Jellyfish (Japan).
  5. The Jellyfish and the Monkey (Japan).
  6. The Heart of a Monkey (Africa, Swahili).
  7. Brother Rabbit and the Gizzard-Eater (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  1. Nasreddin Hodja Rescues the Moon (Turkey).
  2. The Monkeys and the Moon (Tibet).
  3. The Moon in the Mill-Pond (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  4. The Three Sillies (England).

  • Every Mother Thinks Her Child Is the Most Beautiful, fables of type 247.
    1. The Eagle and the Owl (Jean de La Fontaine).
    2. Prose Summary of La Fontaine's Verse Fable (D. L. Ashliman).
    3. One's Own Children Are Always Prettiest (Norway).
    4. The Crow and Its Ugly Fledglings (Romania).
    5. Why Is There Enmity Between the Crow and the Hawk? (Romania).
    6. Jupiter and the Monkey (Aesop).
    7. Jupiter and the Baby Show (Ambrose Bierce).

  1. The Juniper Tree (Germany).
  2. The Girl and the Boy (Austria).
  3. The Crow's Nest (Hungary).
  4. The Rose-Tree (England).
  5. The Satin Frock (England).
  6. The Milk-White Doo [Dove] (Scotland).
  7. The Little Boy and the Wicked Stepmother (Romania).

    . Folktales of type 1592.
    1. Miracle upon Miracle (India, The Panchantantra).
    2. The Mice That Ate an Iron Balance (India, The Kátha Sarit Ságara or, Ocean of the Streams of Story).
    3. The Iron Weights and Scales Which Were Eaten by Mice (India, The "Suka Saptati," or, The Seventy Tales of Parrot.
    4. The Faithless Depositary (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
    5. The Two Merchants (Russia, Leo Tolstoy).


Watch the video: the masnavi manavi RUMI first poem


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